Sugar and molasses have from time to time been manufactured from the corn stalks.
On some plantations making sugar for particular markets and use in refineries it is the custom to make only one class of sugar, by boiling the molasses produced by the purging of one strike with the sugar in the next strike.
Within its limits, in 1905, all the sugar and molasses were manufactured and much of the petroleum was refined, nearly all of the iron and steel ships and steam locomotives were built, and 93% of the carpets and rugs were made, and the total value of the manufactures of this city in that year was nearly one-third of that for the entire state.
The trade is chiefly with the United States, and the main exports are sugar, molasses, logwood, tamarinds, turtles, and pineapples.
Inland, and is used as an outlet for sugar and molasses crops.
Sugar is still grown, and rum and molasses are made, but the consumption of these is confined to the island.
Throughout more than half of the same century also Gloucester carried on a varied and valuable trade with Surinam, hake being the chief article of export and molasses and sugar the principal imports.
Alcohol is made from the refuse molasses obtained from these beet-sugar factories.
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
In the season of 1904-1905, which may be taken as typical, 179 estates, with a planted area of 431,056 acres, produced 11,576,137 tons of cane, and yielded - in addition to alcohol, brandy and molasses-1,089,814 tons of sugar.
The industry is steadily growing, as are the dependent manufactures of molasses and rum.
Boletus edulis, in the Oriental Trehala and in ergot of rye; melibiose, C12H22011, formed, with fructose, on hydrolysing the trisaccharose melitose (or raffinose), C18H32016.5H20, which occurs in Australian manna and in the molasses of sugar manufacture; touranose, C12H22011, formed with d-glucose and galactose on hydrolysing another trisaccharose, melizitose, C,8H32016 2H20, which occurs in Pinus larix and in Persian manna; and agavose, C12H22011, found in the stalks of Agave americana.
The curing or preparation of the crystals for the market by separating the molasses from them.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.
The crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals.
The moisture from the clay, percolating through the mass of sugar, washes away the adhering molasses and leaves the crystals comparatively free and clear.
At the outbreak of the war the production was about 80,000 tons; in 1905 the production of sugar and molasses amounted to 161,851 metric tons, of which 134,344 were exported.
It is used in the extraction of sugar from molasses, since it combines with the sugar to form a soluble saccharate, which is removed and then decomposed by carbon dioxide.
Cargoes of rum, manufactured from West Indian sugar and molasses, were exported to Africa and exchanged for slaves to be sold in the southern colonies and the West Indies.
Sugar and molasses are the chief exports.
The chief exports consist of rice, rattans, torches, dried fish, areca-nuts, sesamum seeds, molasses, sea-slugs, edible birds' nests and tin.
Provisions taken to Newfoundland, poor fish to the West Indies, molasses to New England, rum to Africa and good cod to France and Spain, were the commonest ventures of foreign trade.
Some attention is also being given to the manufacture of alcohol for power purposes in Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philippines; and in Cuba, from the molasses produced as a by-product in the sugar refineries.
The refining of sugar was begun in New York City late in the 18th century, but the growth of the industry to its present magnitude has been comparatively recent; the value of the sugar and molasses refined in 1905 was $116,438,838.
HOGSHEAD, a cask for holding liquor or other commodities, such as tobacco, sugar, molasses, &c.; also a liquid measure of capacity, varying with the contents.
The sugar crop of1907-1908was reported as 123,285 metric tons, in addition to which the molasses output was estimated at 70,947.5 metric tons, and " panela " at 50,000 tons.
The leading imports in 1909 were as follows, indicating in each case, when not evidently unnecessary, the value of finished manufactures and of unmanufactured materials: Silk (manufactured, $32,963,162; unmanufactured, $75,512,401); hides and skins, other than fur skins ($103,758,277); sugar and molasses ($91,535,466); fibres, vegetables and textile grasses (manufactured, $33,511,696; unmanufactured, $54,860,698); coffee ($86,524,006); chemicals ($86,401,432); cotton (manufactured, $68,380,780; raw and waste, $1 5,421,854); rubber (manufactured, $1,462,541, unmanufactured, $83,682,013); wool (manufactured, $22,058,712; unmantifactured, $55,530,366); and wood (manufactured, $43,620,591; unmanufactured, $13,584,172).
Sugar, rum and molasses are exported, and corn, yams, coffee and fruit are grown.
The latter species is grown in America chiefly for the manufacture of molasses from its juice, and in France as a source of alcohol.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
Their goods were carried in Conestoga wagons to Shippensburg and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and Hagerstown, Maryland, taken from there to Pittsburg on pack horses, and exchanged for Pittsburg products; these products were carried by boat to New Orleans, where they were exchanged for sugar, molasses, &c., and these were carried through the gulf and along the coast to Baltimore and Philadelphia.
Until about the same time, when the Maine liquor law was passed, the manufacture of rum from molasses, received in exchange for lumber and fish in the West Indies, was also an important industry.
The chief exports to foreign countries are textile fabrics, Indian corn, meat, dairy products, apples, paraffin, boards and shooks; the chief imports from foreign countries are sugar, molasses and wool.
Treacle and molasses are syrups obtained in the earlier stages of refining.
The leading products and their value in 1905, where given, were: sugar and molasses refining; printing and publishing, $9,424,494 (of which $5,575,035 was for newspapers and periodicals); slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $8,994,992; shipbuilding; foundry and machine-shop products, $8,991,449 clothing, $4,898,095; canning and preserving, $4,151,414; liquors (malt, $4,106,034; vinous, $53,5 11); coffee and spice roasting and grinding, $3,979, 86 5; flour and gristmill products, $3,422,672; lumber, planing and mill products, including sash, doors and blinds, $2,981,552; leather, tanning and finishing, $2,717,542; bags, $2,473,170; paints, $2,c48,250.
His disorder was an oedematous affection of the wind-pipe, contracted by exposure during a long ride in a snowstorm, and aggravated by neglect and by such contemporary remedies as bleeding, gargles of "molasses, vinegar and butter" and "vinegar and sage tea," which "almost suffocated him," and a blister of cantharides.
The leading ones in order of importance and the value of product in millions of dollars were: the manufacture of railway, foundry, and machine shop products (19.6 million dollars), lumber and timber industries (18.57), sugar and molasses refining (15.91), beef slaughtering (15.72), canning and preserving (13.08), flour and grist milling (13.10), the manufacture of malt, vinous and distilled liquors (9.26), leather industries (7.40), printing and publishing (6.86).
Brooklyn's largest manufacturing industry is the refining of sugar, about one-half of the sugar consumed in the United States being refined here; in 1900 the product of the sugar and molasses refining establishments was valued at $77,942,997.
The principal staples include wheat, oilseeds, raw cotton, indigo, sugar, molasses, timber and forest produce, dry-stuffs, ghee, opium and tobacco.
In addition, a considerable quantity of molasses and smaller quantities of rum, vanilla and coco-nut oil are exported.
Nearly all the aloe-fibre exported is taken by Great Britain and France, while the molasses goes to India.