The idea of ponding up the superfluous flood discharge of the river is not a new one, and if Herodotus is to be believed, it was a system actually pursued at a very early period of Egyptian history, when Lake Moeris in the Fayum was filled at each Nile flood, and drawn upon as the river ran down.
For re-creating the, Lake y Re/mayo ~ ~_ of Moeris (q.v.).
The Lake of Moeris, as a large body of fresh water, appears to have come into existence in Pleistocene times.
From the latter a canal or branch led to the Lake of Moeris, which, until the 3rd century B.C., filled the deep, depression of the Fayum, but is now represented only by the strongly brackish waters of the Birket el~KerUn, left in the deepest part.
On the Libyan side the oasis of SIwa could be reached from the Lake of Moeris or from Terrana (Terenuthis), or by the coast route which also led to the Cyrenaica.
During the New Empire, except at the beginning, the nomes seem to have been almost entirely ignored: under the Deltaic dynasties (except of course in the traditions of the sacred writing) they were named after the metropolis, as the province (tosh) of Busiris, the province of Sais, &c.: hence the Greek names Bownptr,ls vojs~, &c. The Arsinoite nome was added by the Ptolemies after the draining of the Lake of Moeris (qv.), and in the later Ptolemaic and the Roman times many changes and additions to the list must have been made.
The fishing industry was of great importance: the annual catch in the Lake of Moeris and its canal formed an important part of the Egyptian revenue.
In the Fayum region, about the borders of the ancient Lake of Moeris and beyond, they are particularly abundant and interesting in their forms. But their age is uncertain; some may be contemporary with the advanced culture of the XIIth Dynasty in the Nile valley.
The obelisk of Heliopolis is amongst his best-known monuments, and the damming of the Lake of Moeris (q.v.) must have been in progress in his reign.
Completed the work of Lake Moeris and began a series of observations of the height of the inundation at Semna which was continued by his successors.
In his long reign of forty-six years he built a pyramid at Dahshr, and at Hawra near the Lake of Moeris another pyramid together with the Labyrinth which seems to have been an enormous funerary temple attached to the pyramid.
During the reign of Philadelphus the land gained from the bed of the lake of Moeris was assigned to veteran soldiers; the great armies of the Ptolemies were rewarded or supported by grants of farm lands, and men of Macedonian, Greek and Hellenistic extraction were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled themselves in the villages throughout the country.
The Fayum is the site of the Lake of Moeris (q.v.) of the ancient Egyptians - a lake of which Birket el Kerun is the shrunken remnant.
See The Fayum and Lake Moeris, by Major (Sir) R.
(London, 1892), a valuable contribution as to the condition of the province at that date, its connexion with Lake Moeris and its possibilities in the future; The Assuan Reservoir and Lake Moeris (London, 1904), by Sir William Willcocks - with text in English, French and Arabic - a consideration of irrigation possibilities; The Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt, by H.
It was situated to the east of Lake Moeris, opposite the ancient site of Arsinoe or Crocodilopolis.