For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
He will therefore devote all his care to examine and distinguish these three means of knowledge; and seeing that truth and error can, properly speaking, be only in the intellect, and that the two other modes of knowledge are only occasions, he will carefully avoid whatever can lead him astray."
The modes of life and standards of comfort and morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the former being far in front of the latter.
The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
The only one of these possible modes of reproduction not known to occur in Hydromedusae is parthenogenesis.
Similar modes of growth occur among the Siphoneous Green Algae and also among the Red Seaweeds.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
To this it may be replied that pure morphology and organography are not alternatives, but are two complementary and equally necessary modes of considering the composition of the plant-body.
Animal diet implies the greatest variety with regard to locality and the modes of procuring the food.
Free or native sulphur, known also as "virgin sulphur," occurs in connexion with volcanoes and in certain stratified rocks in several modes, viz.
There are three modes of admission to membership: in the case of the unbaptized, adult baptism (not immersion); in other cases confirmation or reception.
There are certain fundamental relations common to all tractive problems, and these are briefly considered in §§ i and 2, after which the article refers particularly to steam locomotives, although §§ 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have a general application to all modes of traction.
In the present article it is impossible to give an exhaustive catalogue of the phenomena and modes of communication of modern spiritualism.'
It may be the outgrowth of many differing modes of thought and feeling.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
In general, Europe has in historic times shown itself decidedly hostile to Asiatic institutions and modes of thought.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
No wonder that it stands the comparison badly; but with all its faults the Getica of Jordanes will probably ever retain its place side by side with the De moribus Germanorum of Tacitus as a chief source of information respecting the history, institutions and modes of thought of our Teutonic forefathers.
The one, a law of blood and death, opening out each day new modes of destruction, forces nations to be always ready for the battle.
In order to 'ascertain what modes of action are most conducive to the end in view, and what motives are best fitted to produce them, Bentham was led to construct marvellously exhaustive, though somewhat mechanical, tables of motives.
Of the writers of this period, therefore, it is necessary to notice only such as describe some improvement in the modes of culture, or some extension of the practices that were formerly little known.
Natural laws are just the modes of the unfolding of God's perfection.
The two modes of growth are directly opposed, and at first sight it appears that this fact negatives the view that Endopterygota have been derived from Exopterygota.
It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
L'Herminier arrived at the conclusion that, so far from there being only two or three different modes by which the process of ossification in the sternum is carried out, the number of different modes is very considerable - almost each natural group of birds having its own.
Respect, and he also pointed out that the planta of the different groups of birds in which it is divided is divided in different modes, the mode of division being generally characteristic of the group. Such a coincidence of the internal and external features of birds.
Chemical literature was full of the phlogistic modes of expression - oxygen was '" phlogisticated air," nitrogen " dephlogisticated air," &c. - and this tended to retard its promotion.
Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.
For details respecting the special characters and modes of occurrence of most of these species reference may be made to the respective headings: others not so treated are briefly mentioned below.
From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.
It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.
By the patient study of the behaviour of precocious young birds, such as chicks, pheasants, ducklings and moorhens, it can be readily ascertained that such modes of activity as running, swimming, diving, preening the down, scratching the ground, pecking at small objects, with the characteristic attitudes expressive of fear and anger, are so far instinctive as to be definite on their first occurrence - they do not require to be learnt.
The instincts of nest-building, incubation and the rearing of young, though they occur later in life than those concerned in locomotion and the obtaining of food, are none the less founded on a hereditary basis, and in some respects are less rather than more liable to modification by the experience gained by the carrying out of hereditarily definite modes of procedure.
For modern interpretation hereditary modes of behaviour afford experience; in no other sense can it be said that experience is inherited.
Granted that instinctive modes of behaviour are hereditary and definite within the limits of congenital variation, the question of their manner of genesis is narrowed to a clear issue.
Romanes, taking up the inquiry where Darwin left it, came to the conclusion that some instinctive modes of behaviour which he termed "primary" are due to the operation of natural selection alone; that others, which he termed "secondary," and of which he could give few examples, were due to the inheritance of acquired modifications from which, in the phrase of G.
The tendency of the evolution of intelligence is towards the disintegration of the stereotyped modes of response and the dissolution of instinct.
Natural selection which, under a uniform and constant environment, leads to the survival of relatively fixed and definite modes of response, under an environment presenting a wider range of varying possibilities leads to the survival of plastic accommodation through intelligence.
There may be said to be three or four different modes of life in these larvae: some are fossorial, and form tubes in the mud or clay in which they live; others are found on or beneath stones; while others again swim and crawl freely among water plants.
These terms relate to the modes of nutrition.
During recent years the controversies with regard to the modes of formation of these structures have entered on a new phase.
They held that the duality of natures implied a distinction between two modes of sonship in Christ - the natural or proper, and the adoptive.
The magnetic condition assumed by a piece of ferromagnetic metal in different circumstances is determinable by various modes of experiment which may be classed as magnetometric, ballistic, and traction methods.
Probably the foremost among them is Sigismund Justh, who died prematurely in the midst of his painful attempt at reconciling French " realistic " modes of thought with what he conceived to be Magyar simplicity (A puszta konyve, " The Book of the Puszta," prairie of Hungary; A Peitz legenddja, " The Legend of Money "; Gdnyo Julcsa, " Juliet Ganyo "; Fuimus).
Eight of them, it is true, fell into disuse; but the medieval Ionian and Hypo-ionian modes are absolutely identical with the modern natural scale of C; and the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes differ from our minor scale, not in constitution, but in treatment only.
The whole aim of Terence was to present a faithful copy of the life, manners, modes of thought and expression which had been drawn from reality a century before his time by the writers of the New Comedy of Athens.
He lived at the meeting-point of three distinct civilizations - the mature, or rather decaying, civilization of Greece, of which Athens was still the centre; that of Carthage, which was so soon to pass away and leave scarcely any vestige of itself; and the nascent civilization of Italy, in which all other modes were soon to be absorbed.
A consequence of this change of circumstances was that comedy was no longer national in character and sentiment, but had become imitative and artistic. The life which Terence represents is that of the well-to-do citizen class whose interests are commonplace, but whose modes of thought and speech are refined, humane and intelligent.
There can be little doubt that all unnatural and artificial modes of life tend to deterioration of the powers of resistance of the organism to disease.
When Miss Keller speaks, her face is animated and expresses all the modes of her thought--the expressions that make the features eloquent and give speech half its meaning.
When a man is warmed by the several modes which I have described, what does he want next?