Above all it was this spirit that breathed through every line of the famous encyclical, Pascendi gregis, directed against the " Modernists " (see Roman Catholic Church: History), which denounced with bitter scorn and irony those so-called Catholics who dared to attempt to reconcile the doctrine of the Church with the results of modern science, and who, presumptuously disregarding the authority of the Holy See, maintained " the absurd doctrine that would make of the laity the factor of progress in the Church."
Modernists deny that the spirit of religion can be thus imprisoned in an unchangeable formula; they hold that it is always growing, and therefore in continual need of readjustment and restatement.
Be orderly and systematic; and the Modernists accordingly show little sympathy with Protestantism.
Hitherto the theologians have shown small disposition to hold their hand; and several of the leading Modernists have been excommunicated (see especially the article LoisY, A.
During this period he was distinguished for his opposition to the scholastic philosophy; and, though he did not go to all lengths with the "modernists" (Moderni) of his day, his first work - Logices exercitamenta (1507) - was distinctly on their side.
During these early years Eck was still reckoned among the "modernists," and his commentaries are inspired with much of the scientific spirit of the New Learning.