On the other hand, the attitude of the Vatican towards Liberalism within the Church was one of uncompromising reaction, and under the new pope the doctrines of Christian Democracy and Modernism were condemned in no uncertain tone.
Euripides, as might be expected from his humanitarian cast of sentiment, and the " premature modernism " which has been remarked in him, rises above the ordinary feelings of his time in regard to the slaves.
6th, 1907), probably the longest and most argumentative papal utterance extant, also aims primarily at Loisy, although here the vehemently scholastic redactor's determination to piece together a strictly coherent, complete a priori system of "Modernism" and his self-imposed restriction to medieval categories of thought as the vehicles for describing essentially modern discoveries and requirements of mind, make the identification of precise authors and passages very difficult.
Trans., The Programme of Modernism ed.
And "medievalism" is only now on the defence against "modernism," both Catholic and Protestant.
But Modernism soon broadened into a thoroughgoing revolt against the modes of thought and methods characteristic of the latterday Vatican; its motto is that Catholicism is the strength of popery, but popery the weakness of Catholicism.
This was fgllowed by Through Scylla and Charybdis, in which he developed his favourite view of revelation as experience; Mediaevalism, a vigorous apologia in reply to a Lenten pastoral of Cardinal Mercier, archbishop of Malines, who had attacked him as the chief exponent of Modernism; and Christianity at the Cross Roads, which emphasizes the distinction between his own position and that of the Liberal Protestants, and is of special interest for its treatment of the eschatological problems of the Gospels.
- Unitarianism in the United States followed essentially the same development as in England, and passed through the stages of Arminianism, Arianism, anti-tritheism, to rationalism and a modernism based on a large-minded acceptance of the results of the comparative study of all religions.