Germany viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war and therefore declared war on Russia.
Mobilization began in all the countries affected on Sept.
These constituted 12 active divisions, plus, on mobilization, 10 first reserve divisions and 3 second reserve divisions.
At the completion of mobilization the ration strength of the field forces alone, exclusive of III.
The principles upon which the reorganization of1905-1908was based are: (a) that in peace the army at home must be maintained at such an effective standard that all necessary drafts for the army abroad shall be forthcoming, without undue depletion of the army at home; (b) the home army on mobilization for service should be brought up to war strength by the recall of reservists in sufficient, but not too great, numbers; (c) the wastage of a campaign shall be made good by drafts partly from the remaining army reserve, but above all from the militia, now converted into the special reserve; and (d) the volunteers and yeomanry, reorganized into the territorial force, shall be responsible, with little regular help, for the defence of the home country, thus freeing the regular army at home for general service.
The special reserve, converted from the militia, consists of infantry, field and garrison artillery, the Irish Horse (late Yeomanry), engineers, and a few A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. Its object is to make good on mobilization deficiencies (so far as they may exist of ter the calling in of the army reserve) in the expeditionary or regular forces, and to repair the losses of a campaign.
The war organization of the home establishment, with its general and special reserves, aimed at the mobilization and despatch overseas of 6 army divisions, each of 12 battalions in 3 brigades; 9 field batteries in 3 brigades, a brigade of 3 field howitzer batteries, and a heavy battery, each with the appropriate ammunition columns; 2 field companies and telegraph company R.E.; 2 companies mounted infantry; and ambulances, columns and parks.
But in accordance both with the growing tendency to separate command and administration and with the desire to enlist local sympathies and utilize local resources, "associations," partly of civilian, partly of military members, were formed in every county and charged by statute with all matters relating to the enlistment, service and discharge of the county's quota in the force, finance (other than pay, &c. in camp), buildings, ownership of regimental property, &c. To these duties of county associations are added that of supervising and administering cadet corps of all sorts (other than officers' training corps), and that of providing the extra horses required on mobilization, not only by the territorial force, but by the expeditionary force as well.
Were formed on mobilization out of surplus reservists and of such Macedonian volunteers as enlisted in the regular forces (these had two brigades each instead of three).
The arrangements for mobilization are otherwise very complete, and the field army is maintained in a high state of efficiency.
The tenor of his speeches was always to encourage Ministers in vigorous action - on such questions, for instance, as the mobilization of industry, the treatment of aliens and the provision of munitions.
The mobilization of 1870 placed him at the head of the VIII.
M.; dedicated 1895) on the battlefield of Chickamauga (q.v.); this park was one of the principal mobilization camps of the United States army during the Spanish-American War of 1898.1898.
During mobilization in 1914 he was at the head of the German field railway service.
The Rigsdag which assembled on the 23rd of February 1657 willingly granted considerable subsidies for mobilization and other military expenses; on the 15th of April Frederick III.
Bulgaria began her mobilization at the end of September, followed immediately by her allies; Turkey ordered mobilization on Oct.1; by Oct.
It is assumed that on mobilization these men are immediately available.
By the 16th of March 1866 the Austrian war preparations were so far advanced that Count Mensdorff thought it safe to send an ultimatum to Prussia and, at the same time, a circular note to the princes declaring that, in the event of an evasive reply, Austria would move in the diet for the mobilization of the federal forces.
This was useful for the purposes of speedy mobilization, though there was some danger that the local and national spirit might penetrate into the army.
Every battalion receives two additional companies on mobilization and takes the field with six companies.
But on leaving the colors the men disperse to their homes, and thus a regiment has, on mobilization, to draw largely on the nearest reservists, irrespective of the corps to which they belong.
Efforts were mainly directed towards - (1) reducing the time required for the mobilization of the army; (2) increasing the immediate readiness of cavalry for war and its fitness for serving as mounted infantry (dragoon regiments taking the place of hussars and lancers); (3) strengthening the W.
It did, indeed, assent to a treatyafterwards signed on behalf of the confederationby which Prussia and Austria guaranteed each other, but it resolutely opposed the mobilization of the confederate army.
The Riksdag of 190o, in addition to grants for the fortifications at Boden, in the province of Norrbotten, on the Russian border, and other military objects, voted a considerable grant for an experimental mobilization, which fully exposed the defects and faults of the old system.
On the 30th of November the mobilization of a sixth division was ordered, offers of colonial aid were accepted, and every facility provided for local recruiting in the South African ports.
Within six years the mobilization arrangements were recast, the war against Denmark in 1864 proving an opportune test of the new system.
Two ordinary congressional sessions are held each year - April 1 to May 31 and September 16 to December 15 - and a permanent committee of 29 members (14 senators and 15 deputies) sits during recess, with the power to confirm executive appointments, to give assent to a mobilization of the national guard, fo convene extra legislative sessions, to administer oaths, and to report at the next session on matters requiring congressional action.
After a period of vacillation Hanover threw in her lot with Austria, the decisive step being taken when the question of the mobilization of the federal army was voted upon in the diet on the 14th of June 1866.
The citizens, who were called upon to fight their battles, were usually unable to contend successfully with men whose whole lives had been passed in warfare; the isolation of the cities was not favorable to the creation or mobilization of an active and homogeneous force; and, moreover, at this time many of them were disturbed by internal troubles.
Of loo companies (told off to garrisons, siege train and heavy field batteries) and 8 batteries mountain guns; the Corps of Royal Engineers, organized into mounted field troops, field companies, fortress, telegraph, railway, searchlight, balloon, wireless companies and bridging train; the Army Service Corps, divided into transport, supply, mechanical-transport and other companies and sections; the Royal Army Medical Corps of 35 companies; the Army Ordnance Corps; the Army Veterinary Corps; Army Post Office Corps (formed on mobilization only) and Army Pay Corps.
These constituted 12 active divisions, plus, on mobilization, II first reserve divisions and 6 second reserve divisions.
Venizelos then ordered a general mobilization of the Greek army and formally declared war against Germany and her allies.
One result of this is that mobilization and concentration are much slower processes than they are in Germany.
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
Even in the summer and autumn a large proportion of the army consisted of men with but a few months servicea highly dangerous state of things considering the peculiar mobilization conditioss of the country.
Napoleon was surprised by the news of Prussia's mobilization; he had come to regard her as a negligible quantity, and now he found that her unexpected sensitiveness on points of honour was about to revivify the Third Coalition against France.
In 1850 Prussia, realizing from the breakdown of her mobilization for the war then impending with Austria that success was impossible, submitted to the Austrian demands, but her statesmen saw from the first that the "surrender of Olmiitz," as it was termed, rendered eventual war with Austria "a military necessity."