1820) and San Martin, important contributions to the history of the country and of the war of independence, by ex-President Bartolome Mitre (1821-1906).
The army of the portent's, commanded by Colonel Bartolome Mitre, was defeated at Cepeda by the confederate forces under Urquiza, and Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the confederation (November 11, 1859).
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.
The battle ended in the disastrous defeat of the provincial forces; General Mitre used his victory in a spirit of moderation and sincere patriotism.
Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.
General Mitre became commander-in-chief of the combined armies for the invasion of Paraguay and was absent for several years in the field.
Meanwhile, disturbances had broken out in the interior of Argentina (1867), which compelled Mitre to relinquish his command in Paraguay, and to call back a large part of the Argentine forces to suppress the insurrection.
In 1868 the term of General Mitre came to an end, and Doctor Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, a native of San Juan, was quietly elected to succeed him.
The candidate of the former, Dr Nicolas Avellaneda, triumphed over General Mitre, not without suspicions of tampering with the returns; and the unsuccessful party appealed to arms. The new president, however, who was installed in office on the 12th of October, took active steps to suppress the revolution, which never assumed a really serious character.
The government troops gained two decisive victories over the insurgents under Generals Mitre and Arredondo, and they were compelled to surrender at discretion.
The con Mitre parties, under Generals Mitre and Urquiza respectively,.
This Mitre war.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
General Bartolome Mitre was proposed by the portenos as their candidate.
Carranza, Constitucion Nacional y Constituciones Provinciales Vigentes (Buenos Aires, 1898); Angelo de Gubernatis, L' Argentina (Firenze, 1898); Meliton Gonzales, El Gran Chaco Argentino (Buenos Aires, 1890); John Grant & Sons, The Argentine Year Book (Buenos Aires, 1902 et seq.); Francis Latzina, Diccionario Geografico Argentino (Buenos Aires, 1891); Geographie de la Republique Argentine (Buenos Aires, 1890); L' Agriculture et l'Elevage dans la Republique Argentine (Paris, 1889); Bartolome Mitre, Historia de San Martin y de la Emancipation Sud-Americana, segun nuevos documentos (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1887); Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1883); Felipe Soldan, Diccionario Geografico Estadistico Nacional Argentino (Buenos Aires, 1885); Thomas A.
The " Pandora," under Captain Edwards, was sent out in search of the " Bounty," and discovered the islands of Cherry and Mitre, east of the Santa Cruz group, but she was eventually lost on a reef in Torres Strait.
These sides are stiffened, and when the mitre is worn, they rise in front and behind like two horns pointed at the tips (cornua mitrae).
From the lower rim of the mitre at the back hang two bands (infulae), terminating in fringes.
In the case of these latter, however, the mitre is worn only in the church to which the privilege is attached and on certain high festivals.
The proper symbol of episcopacy is not so much the mitre as the ring and pastoral staff.
There is no suggestion of the popular idea that the mitre symbolizes the " tongues of fire " that descended on the heads of the apostles at Pentecost.
Lastly, the mitre, though a liturgical vestment, differs from the others in that it is never worn when the bishop addresses the Almighty in prayer - e.g.
The origin and antiquity of the episcopal mitre have been the subject of much debate.
Mitra, even as late as the 15th century, retained its simple meaning of cap (see Du Cange, Glossarium, s.v.); to Isidore of Seville it is specifically a woman's cap. Infula, which in late ecclesiastical usage was to be confined to mitre (and its dependent bands) and chasuble, meant originally a piece of cloth, or the sacred fillets used in pagan worship, and later on came to be used of any ecclesiastical vestment, and there is no evidence for its specific application to the liturgical head-dress earlier than the 12th century.
With the episcopal mitre the Jewish miznephet, translated " mitre " in the Authorized Version (Exod.
The first trustworthy notice of the use of the mitre is under Pope Leo IX.
This proves that the use of the mitre had been for some time established at Rome; that it was specifically a Roman ornament; and that the right to wear it was only granted to ecclesiastics elsewhere as an exceptional honour.
2 On the other hand, the Roman ordines of the 8th and 9th centuries make no mention of the mitre; the evidence goes to prove that this liturgical head-dress was first adopted by the popes some time in the 10th century; and Father Braun shows convincingly that it was in its origin nothing else than the papal regnum or phrygium which, originally worn only at outdoor processions and the like, was introduced into the church, and thus developed into the liturgical mitre, while outside it preserved its original significance as the papal 1 Father Braun, S.
Ad episc.) is the Jewish miznephet, and the well-known miniature of Gregory the Great (not St Dunstan, as commonly assumed) wearing a mitre (Cotton MSS.
That it had been already so granted is proved by a miniature containing the earliest extant representations of a mitre, in the Exultete rotula and baptismal rotula at Bari (reproduced in Berteaux, L' Art dans l'Italie meridionale, I., Paris, 1904).
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
From the 12th century, too, dates the custom of investing the bishop with the mitre at his consecration.
It was not till the 12th century that the mitre came to be regarded as specifically episcopal, and meanwhile the custom had grown up of granting it honoris causa to other dignitaries besides bishops.
The original motive of the recipients of these favours was doubtless the taste of the time for outward display; St Bernard, zealous for the monastic ideal, de nounced abbots for wearing mitres and the like more pontificum, and Peter the Cantor roundly called the abbatial mitre " inane, superfluous and puerile " (Verb.
(Iop) granting to Hugh, archbishop of Besancon, and his seven cardinals the right to wear the mitre at the altar as celebrant, deacon and subdeacon, a similar privilege being, granted to Bishop Hartwig of Bamberg in the following year.
In the coronation of the emperor, more particularly, the mitre played a part.
The original form of the mitre was that of the early papal tiara (regnum), i.e.
A somewhat high conical cap. The stages of its general development from this shape to the high double-horned modern mitre are clearly traceable (see fig.
About iroo the conical mitre begins to give place to a round one; a band of embroidery is next set over the top from back to front, which tends to bulge up the soft material on either side; and these bulges develop into points or horns.
Such a mitre appears on a seal of Archbisho p Thomas Becket (Father Thurston, The ?P allium, London, 1892, p. 17), The custom was, however, .already growing up of setting the horns over the front and back of the head instead of the sides (the mitre said to have belonged to St Thomas Becket, now at Westminster Cathedral, is of this type), 1 and with this the essential character of the mitre, as it persisted through the middle ages, was established.
The exaggeration of the height of the mitre, which began at the time of the Renaissance, reached its climax in the 17th century.
Of the surviving early mitres the greater number have only the orphrey embroidered, the body of the mitre being left plain.
Architectural motives even were introduced, as frames to the embroidered figures of saints, while sometimes the upper edges of the mitre were ornamented with crockets, and the horns with architectural finials.
Finally, the traditional circulus and titulus seem all but forgotten, the whole front and back surfaces of the mitre being ornamented with embroidered pictures or with arabesque patterns.
The latter is characteristic of the mitre in the modern Roman Catholic Church, the tradition of the local Roman Church having always excluded the representation of figures on ecclesiastical vestments.
In the Church of England the use of the mitre was discontinued at the Reformation.
In general, however, there is no evidence to prove that this use was liturgical, though the silver-gilt mitre of Bishop Wren of Ely (d.
The instances of the use of the mitre quoted in Hier.
The tradition of the mitre as an episcopal ornament has, nevertheless, been continuous in the Church of England, " and that on three lines: (i) heraldic usage; (2) its presence on the head of effigies of bishops, of which a number are extant, of the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries; (3) its presence in funeral processions, where 1 In Father Braun's opinion, expressed to the writer, this mitre, which was formerly at Sens, belongs probably to the 13th century.