All of these were drawn up in the period of the Amoraim, the order of teachers who succeeded the Tannaim, from the close of the Mishnah to about A.D.
As the existing halakhoth were collected and edited in the Mishnah, so the much larger agadic material was gathered together and arranged in the Midrashim.
As the discussion of the Law led up to the compilation of the Mishnah, so the Mishnah itself became in turn the subject of further discussion.
The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
The foundation, however, the Mishnah, was the same in both.
Both Talmuds are arranged according to the six orders of the Mishnah, but the discussion of the Mishnic text often wanders off into widely different topics.
These are always printed in the editions on the same page as the Mishnah and Gemara, the whole, with various other matter, filling generally about 12 folio volumes.
(partly in Arabic) not only numerous Responsa, but also treatises on law, commentaries on the Mishnah and the Bible, a lexicon called in Arabic al-Hawi, and poems such as the Musar Haskel, but most of them are now lost or known only from translations or.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
His son Samuel, who died at Marseilles about 1230, was equally prolific. He translated the Moreh Nebhukhim during the life of the author, and with some help from him, so that this may be regarded as the authorized version; Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah tractate Pirge.Abhoth, and some minor works; treatises of Averroes and other Arabic authors.
In the East, Tanhum ben Joseph of Jerusalem was the author of commentaries (not to be confounded with the Midrash Tanhuma) on many books of the Bible, and of an extensive lexicon (Kitab al-Murshid) to the Mishnah, all in Arabic.
About 1500) compiled his very useful commentary on the Mishnah, based on those of Rashi and Maimonides.
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
Babylonia had risen into supreme importance for Jewish life at about the time when the Mishnah was completed.
In the second temple there was a water libation every morning of the festival, and on the evening of the first day the great golden candelabrum was lit up and the men danced a torch dance around it (Mishnah, Sukkah, v.
It was pre-eminently the period of exultation in ancient Jewish rite, and the Mishnah declares that "He who has not seen the jcy of the libations of Tabernacles has never in his life witnessed joy."
That chief literary expression of Pharisaism, the Mishnah, was the outcome of the work begun at Jamnia.
'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of the Babylonian amora of the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud.
If only upon linguistic grounds - for the Hebrew of the book resembles often that of the Mishnah more than the ordinary Hebrew of the Old Testament - Ecclesiastes must be one of the latest books in the Hebrew canon.
Mr Fotheringham is of opinion that the evidence from Christian sources is too uncertain, and that the statements of the Mishnah must be the starting-point of the inquiry: taking then the phasis of the new moon as the true beginning of Nisan, he concludes that Friday cannot have coincided with Nisan 14 in any year, within the period A.
2 However this may be, the independent Halakoth (where the oral decisions are interpreted or discussed on the basis of the Old Testament) were gradually collected and arranged according to their subject in the Mishnah and Tosephta (Talmud, § 1), while in the halakic Midrashim (where the decisions are given in connection with the biblical passage from which they were derived) they follow the sequence of the text of the Old Testament.
Aqiba, the great principle of the Torah.) It is useful for the interpretation of the Mishnah treatises Qbdashim and Teharoth.
The last change in the system was the appropriation of the Levitical tithe by the priests, which apparently was effected by John Hyrcanus, though a tradition, glaringly inconsistent with Nehemiah, ascribes it to Ezra, alleging that he deprived the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Mishnah, "Ma'aser Sh."
The large number of Greek words, however, in the language of the Mishnah and the Talmud is a significant phenomenon.
So again the word mathani is, as Geiger has conjectured, the regular plural of the Aramaic mathnitha, which is the same as the Hebrew Mishnah, and denotes in Jewish usage a legal decision of some of the ancient Rabbins.
Mentioned above, the redactor of the Mishnah, was honoured as the "Rabbi" xar' E oy v (" par excellence"), and in the tradition of the houses of learning, if it was necessary to speak of him or to cite his opinions and utterances, he was simply referred to as "Rabbi," without the mention of any name.
On the later history of the canonical law (Mishnah, Gemara, &c.) see Talmud.
- The Talmud (Hebrew " teaching, learning ") consists of the Mishnah (Heb.
Other material related to the Mishnah is preserved in the Tosephta (Aram.
1 Mishnah stands in contrast to Migra (" reading, scripture "); its Aram.
(" sayings of the fathers "), a famous collection of maxims; the sixth chapter on " the possession of the law " does not properly belong to the Mishnah (ed.
The Mishnah itself contains 63 tractates, or, since IV.
The origin of the latter, which has become codified in the Mishnah, has often been discussed.
` Tables,' these are the Ten Words (the Decalogue); the ` Law ' is the Scripture; ` and the commandment,' that is the Mishnah: ` which I have written,' these are the Prophets and Writings (i.e.
In the Old Testament many laws in the Mosaic legislation are certainly post-Mosaic and the value of not a few narratives lies, not in their historical or biographical information, but in their treatment of law, ritual, custom, belief, &c. Later developments are exemplified in the pseudepigraphical literature, notably in the Book of Jubilees, and when we reach the Mishnah and Talmud, we have only the first of a new series of stages which, it may be said, culminate in the 16th-century Shulhan `Aruk, the great compendium of the then existing written and oral law.
The course of development between the recognition of the supremacy of the Pentateuch and the actual writing down of the Mishnah and Gemara can be traced only in broad lines.
The term Mishnah) of the Christian Fathers.
Growth of the Mishnah and Gemara.
He gathered together the material, using Meir's collection as a basis, and although he did not write the Mishnah as it now is, he brought it into essentially its present shape.
His methods were not free from arbitrariness; he would attribute to " the wise " the opinion of a single authority which he regarded as correct; he would ignore conflicting opinions or those of scholars which they themselves had afterwards retracted, and he did not scruple to cite his own decisions.2 The period of the Amora'im, " speakers, interpreters," (about 220-500 A.D.), witnessed the growth of the Gemara, when the now " canonical " Mishnah formed the basis for further amplification and for the collecting of old and new material which bore upon it.
- The Palestinian recension of the Mishnah and Gemara is called " the Talmud of the Land of Israel," or " T.
In the latter the Gemara follows each paragraph of the Mishnah; in the former, references are usually made to the leaves (the two pages of which are called a and b), the enumeration of the editio princeps being retained in subsequent editions.
The Mishnah is written in a late literary form of Hebrew; but the Gemara is in Aramaic (except the Baraithas), that of the Bab.
For early mnemonic aids to the Mishnah, see Strack, p. 68, Jew.
The Mishnah was first critically edited by W.
Mishnah, but they differ from and are sometimes older than the Mishnic material, with which they sometimes conflict (so in particular as regards the rejected decisions of the school of Shammai).
Parallel to the Mishnah is the Tosephta, an independent compilation associated with R.
The " canonical " Mishnah and Gemara were now the objects of study, and the scattered Jews appealed to the central bodies of Judaism in Babylonia for information and guidance.
Important also are the introduction to and commentary upon the Mishnah by Maimonides (q.v.), and the commentary of Rabbenu Obadiah di Bertinoro (died 1510).
The school of Shammai disallows it; but the school of Hillel allows it," &c. In the Gemara, the decisions of the Mishnah are not only discussed, explained or developed, but all kinds of additional matter are suggested by them.
5, the reference in the Mishnah to the Zealots (2t hptot) is the occasion for a long romantic account of the wars preceding the destruction of the Second Temple.
The canonization of oral tradition in the Mishnah brought the advantages and the disadvantages of a legal religion, and controversialists have usually seen only one side.
From age to age groups of laws were codified and expanded - the Priestly law of the Old Testament, the Mishnah, the complete Talmud, the subsequent codifications of Alfazi, Maimonides, and finally Joseph Caro.
8, 2 3) is discussed in the Mishnah (Makkoth, iv.
Schiller-Szinessy, articles " Midrash," " Mishnah," and " Talmud," in Ency.
Lauterbach, " Mishnah," and W.
Here lived Rabbi Judah ha k-I adosh, editor of the Mishnah; here was edited the Jerusalem Talmud, and here are the tombs of Rabbi Aqiba and Maimonides.
OBADIAH BERTINORO, Jewish commentator of the Mishnah, died in Jerusalem about 1500.