Its specific gravity is o 899 at o° C. It is very slightly soluble in water, more soluble in alcohol, and completely miscible with ether, acetic acid and carbon disulphide.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
It boils at 114.5° C., and is miscible with water in all proportions.
In these two instances the component crystals are miscible in all proportions; but this is by no means always the case.
It may happen that the crystals do not form double salts, and are only miscible in certain proportions.
For simplicity we confine ourselves to mixtures of two components, in which experience shows that three cases are to be recognized according as the components are (I) completely immiscible, (2) partially miscible, (3) miscible in all proportions.
When distilling a mixture of partially miscible components a distillate of constant composition is obtained so long as two layers are present, i.e.
The distillation of completely miscible mixtures is the most common practically and the most complex theoretically.
For immiscible liquids the vapour pressure curve is the horizontal line ab, described so that aP = QB and bQ=AP. For partially miscible liquids the curve is Pa i b i Q.
The investigation of the mutual relations of partially miscible liquids, due to P. Alexejew, D.
It is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
As the distillation proceeded one layer would diminish more rapidly than the other until only the latter would remain; this would then distil as a completely miscible mixture.
It is miscible in all proportions with alcohol, ether and water.