It was built by Sultan Ali Mirza about A.D.
NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.
On the right of the Imam's tomb is that of Abbas Mirza, grandfather of the reigning Shah.
In the following year he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani.
R.G.S., 1897; Ney Elias and Ross, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, from the Tarskh-i-Rastisdi of Mirza Haidar (London, 1898); Grenard, Mission scientifique sur la Haute Asie (Paris, 1898); Dr Sven Hedin, Through Asia (London, 1898); Central Asia and Tibet (1903); Geographie des Hochlandes von Pamir (Berlin, 1894); Captain M.
The chief building is the Diwan-i-Khas built by Mirza Raja.
"No sooner" (it is related) "had Mirza completed the Diwan-i-Khas than it came to the ears of the emperor Jehangir that his vassal had surpassed him in magnificence, and that this last great work quite eclipsed all the marvels of the imperial city; the columns of red sandstone having been particularly noticed as sculptured with exquisite taste and elaborate detail.
In a fit of jealousy the emperor commanded that this masterpiece should be thrown down, and sent commissioners to Amber charged with the execution of this order; whereupon Mirza, in order to save the structure, had the columns plastered over with stucco, so that the messengers from Agra should have to acknowledge to the emperor that the magnificence, which had been so much talked of, was after all pure invention.
This building, which was erected by Shah Rukh Mirza, the grandson of Timur, over Soo years ago, contains some exquisite specimens of sculpture in the best style of Oriental art.
Mirza Mahommed Ben Shah Rok Ulugh Beg >>
This city - Aski Shahr (Old Town) as it is now called - was destroyed in 1514 by Mirza Ababakar (Abubekr) on the approach of Sultan Said Khan's army.
Kashgar passed through a troublous time, and in 1514, on the invasion of the Khan Sultan Said, was destroyed by Mirza Ababakar, who with the aid of ten thousand men built the new fort with massive defences higher up on the banks of the Tuman.
Several Persian missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by `Abbas Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as " the Master."
In 1408 the Mirza Edigei ravaged Muscovite territory, but was unable to take Moscow.
He left twentythree sons, of whom the fifth, Zaman Mirza, by help of Payindah Khan, head of the Barakzai family of the Abdalis, succeeded in grasping the royal power.
His name was Mirza Mahommed, and he succeeded his grandfather Aliverdi Khan as nawab of Bengal on the 9th of April 1756.
By Muzaffar-ud-Din Shah, Mahommed Ali Mirza (his successor) and the grand vizir, on the 3oth of December 1906, deals with the rescript of the 5th of August, states the powers and duties of the national council and makes provision for the regulation of its general procedure by the council itself.
More to the purpose is it that Sultan IJosain Mirza, great-grandson of Omar Sheikh, son of Timur, reigned 10 in Herat from 1487 to 1506.
And, a little later, that Uzun IJasan, after he had made himself master of Persia, turned his arms in the direction of Turkey; but the reader is left to infer for himself what the real empire of IJosain Mirza, and what the limit of the Persia of Uzun Uasan.
Three sons were the issue of this marriage, Sultan Ali, Ibrahim Mirza, and the youngest, Ism&il, the date of whose birth is put down as 1480 for reasons which will appear hereafter.
The deceased shah had a numerous progeny, and on his death his fifth son, Haidar Mirza, proclaimed himself king, supported in his pretensions by the Kizil-bash tribe of Ustujulu.
He was succeeded by his eldest brother, Mahommed Mirza, otherwise Mahommed called Mahommed Khudabanda, whose claim to Khuda- sovereignty had been originally put aside on the banda.
His eldest son, Hamza Mirza, upheld his fortunes to the utmost of his power, reduced the rebel chieftains, and forced the Turks to make peace and retire; but he was stabbed to death by an assassin.
The murder of his eldest son, Sufi Mirza, and the cruel treatment of the two younger brothers, were stains which could not be obliterated by an after-repentance.
All that can be now said or done in the matter is to repeat the testimony of historians that his grief for the loss of ~ufi Mirza was profound, and that, on his deathbed, he nominated that princes son (his own grandson) his successor.
Sam Mirza was seventeen years of age when the nobles, in fulfilment of the charge c mmitted to them, proclaimed him Shah ~ king under the title of Shah ~ufi.
Indeed Suleiman himself is reported to have told the grandees around him, in his last days, that if they were for a martial king that would always keep his foot in the stirrup they ought to choose Mirza Abbas, but that if they wished for a peaceable reign and a pacific king they ought to fix their eyes upon Jiosain.
Mirza Mahdi relateshow this event was brought about by his address to the assembled nobles and officers on the morning of the Nau-ruz, or Persian New-Years Day, the response to that appeal being the offer of the crown.
Mirza Mahdi relates that from the Kabul plain he addressed a new remonstrance to the Delhi court, but that his envoy was arrested and killed, and his escort compelled to return by the governor of Jalalabad.
Insignificant gain to Persia.1 Another battle won from the Ottoman troops near Diarbekr by Na~r Ullah Mirza, the young prince who had married a princess of Delhi, left matters much the same as before.
Said Mahommed, son of Mirza Daud, a chief mullah at Meshed, whose mother was the reputed daughter of Suleiman, declared himself king, and imprisoned and blinded Shah Rukh.
Hajji Ibrahim became his chief adviser, and a new minister was found for him in Mirza Uosain Shirazi.
Moreover, his two sons Nadir Mirza and Wali Niamat had long been ~ghting, and the former was in 1796 the actual ruler of the place.
Remains of the sovereign were exposed to insult, the army was disturbed, the recently captured fort on the left bank of the Aras was abandoned; but the wisdom and resolution of the minister, Hajji Ibrahim, and of Mirza Mahommed Khan Kajar secured order and acceptance of the duly appointed heir.
Another adversary presented himself in the person of Nadir Mirza, son of Shah Rukh, who, when Aga Mahommed appeared before Meshed, had taken refuge with the Afghans.
Finally, he advanced into Khorasan with an army which appears to have met with no opposition save at Nishapur and Turbet, both of which places were taken, and when it reached Meshed, Nadir Mirza tendered his submission, which was accepted.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.
In the following year Abbas Mirza advanced upon Shishah, the chief of which place and of the Karabagh had declared for Russia; much fighting ensued, and Erivan was formally taken possession of in the name of the shah.
Hearing that a Russian force of some 9000 men was concentrated at Tiflis, Mahommed Mirza, son of the crown prince, advanced to meet them on the banks of the Zezam.
1804 and 1805, to allow the Russians to Turke make free use of the south-eastern coasts of the Black Sea, to facilitate operations against the shahs troops; and there had been a passage of arms betweenthe kings eldest son, Mahommed Au Mirza, and Suleiman Pasha, son-in-law of the governor-generat of Bagdad, which is locally credited as a battle won by the former.
This made Abbas Mirza at once seize upon the fortified places of Toprak Kalah and Ak Sarai within the limits of the Ottoman Empire, and, overcoming the insufficient force sent against him, he was further enabled to extend his inroads to Mush, Bitlis, and other known localities.
He was defeated by Mahommed Ali Mirza, then prince-governor of Kermanshah, who drove his adversary back towards his capital and advanced to its immediate environs.
In the north the progress of Abbas Mirza was stopped at Bayazici by a like deadly visitation; and a suspension of hostilities was agreed upon for the winter season.
Profiting from this victory, Abbas Mirza repeated an offer of peace before made without avail to the pasha of Erzerum; and, in order to conciliate him more effectually, he retired within the old limits of the dominions of the shah, his father.
The revolt of Nadir Mirza had, as before explained, drawn the shahs attention to Khorasan in the early part of his reign; but, although quiet had for the moment been restored at Meshed by the presence of the royal camp, fresh grounds of complaint were urged against the rash but powerless prince, and recourse was had to extreme measures.
The expedition, led by Abbas Mirza, involved some hard fighting and much loss of life; several forts and places were captured, among them Kuchan and Serrakhs; and it may be concluded that the objects contemplated were more or less attained.
Some eight or nine years afterwards Abbas Mirza, when at the head of his army in Meshed, invited Var Mahommed Khan of Herat to discuss a settlement of differences between the two governments.
Again the Persian troops advanced to Herat itself under the command of Mahomnied Mirza, son of Abbas; but the news of his fathers death caused the commander to break up his camp and return to Meshed.
Agreeably to the Persian custom, asserted by his predecessors, of nominating the heir-apparent from the sons of the sovereign without restriction to seniority, he had passed over the eldest, Mahommed Ali, in favor of a junior, Abbas; but, as the nominee died in the lifetime of his father, the old king had proclaimed Mahommed Mirza, the son of Abbas, and his own grandson, to be his successor.
His accession was ~Rka~ommed not publicly notified for some months after his grandfathers death, for it was necessary to clear the way of all competitors, and there were two on this occasionone ~Ali Mirza, governor of Teheran, who actually assumed a royal title, and one Hasan Ali Mirza, governor of Shiraz.
Markham, however, states that both Ali Mirza and Hasan Ali were allowed to retire with a small pension, and that no atrocities stained the beginning of the reign of Mahommed Shah.
The kings choice, however, fell on Hajji Mirza Aghasi, a native of Erivan, who in former years, as tutor to the Sons of Abbas Mirza, had gained a certain reputation for learning and a smattering of the occult sciences, but whose qualifications for statesmanship were craftiness and suspicion.
The chiefs, Bzt,edltion reduced to temporary submission by Abbas Mirza, had ~aj~t again revolted; and Shah Kamran, supported by his ~
The old minister, Hajji Mirza Aghasi, shut himself up in the royal palace with 1200 followers, arid had to take refuge in the sanctuary of Shah Abdul- Azim near Teheran.
On the other hand Mirza Aga Khan, a partisan of the asafu d-dauia, and himself an ex-minister of war, whom the hajji had caused to be banished, was welcomed back to the capital.
While revolution prevailed in the city, robbery was rife in the province of Yezd; and from Kazvin the son of Au Mirza otherwise called the zulus-sultan, the prince-governor of Teheran, who disputed the succession of Mahommed Shah, came forth to contest the crown with his cousin, the heir-apparent.
It has been stated that the asafu d-daula was a competitor with Hajji Mirza Aghasi for the post of premier in the cabinet of Mahommed Shah, that he was afterwards, in the same reign, exiled for rising in.
The latter chief had reappeared in arms against his authority; he had gained possession of Meshed itself, driving the prince-governor, Hamza Mirza, into the citadel; and so firm was his attitude that Yar Mahommed of Herat, who had come to help the government officials, had retired after a fruitless co-operation, drawing away the prince-governor also.
The salar now defied Murad Mirza, Nasru d-Dins uncle, who was besieging the city.
The conqueror of Meshed, Murad Mirza, became afterwards himself the prince-governor of Khorasan.
In the article on BABYIsM, the facts as to the life of the l3ab, Mirza Ali Mahommed of Shiraz, and the progress of the Babiist movement, are separately noticed.
Mirza Taki, the amiru n-nizam (vulgarly amir nizam), or consmander-in-chief, was a good specimen of the self-made man of Persia.