The latter were at first presided over by Zuloaga, who, proving incompetent, was replaced at the end of 1858 by Pezuela, who early in 1859 gave place to Miguel Miramon, a young, able and unscrupulous soldier who was shortly afterwards accepted as " constitutional " president by his party.
At last, on the 17th of November 1860, Miramon, under the plea of necessity, seized $630,000 in specie which had been left under seal at the British Legation and was intended for the bondholders.
The French chargé d'affaires, Dubois de Saligny, who had been sent out in November 1860, urged French intervention, and took up the Jecker claims. Jecker, a Swiss banker settled in Mexico, had lent Miramon's government in 1859 $75 0, 000 (subject, however, to various deductions): in return, Miramon gave him 6% bonds of the nominal value of $15,000,000 which were ingeniously disguised as a conversion scheme.
Jecker had failed early in 1860, Miramon was overthrown a few months later.
Here, with Miramon, he was besieged by the Juarists under Escobedo, and the garrison, when about to make a last attempt to break out, was betrayed 2 by Colonel Lopez to the besiegers (May 15, 1867).
Execution of Maximilian, with the Mexican generals Miramon and Maximilian, Mejia, was tried by court-martial, and, refusing (or 1867.
Murder and brigandage, on the 14th of June, and shot, with Miramon and Mejia, on the 19th of June 1867, despite many protests from European governments and prominent individuals,.
Domenech, L'Empire cain (Mexico, 1866), and Le Mexique tel qu'il est (Paris, 1867); Daran, El General Miguel Miramon (in French) (Rome, 1886); Schmidt von Tavera, Gesch.