In 1792 he was prosecuted for publishing an edition of the Lettres de Mirabeau et Sophie, but was acquitted.
On the 7th of July he took his seat in the Assembly, and on the 2nd of October both he and Mirabeau were declared by the Assembly entirely free of any complicity in the events of October.
He presented a famous report in the Constituent Assembly on the organization of the army, but is better known by his eloquent speech on the 28th of February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Mirabeau, whose relations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who was a personal enemy of Lameth.
For instance, Mirabeau wrote thus to Sir Samuel Romilly: " I have never been able to read the work of Mr Gibbon without being astounded that it should ever have been written in English; or without being tempted to turn to the author and say, ` You an Englishman ?
HONORE GABRIEL RIQUETI MIRABEAU, COMTE DE (1749-1791), French statesman, was born at Bignon, near Nemours, on the 9th of March 1749.
The family of Riquet, or Riqueti, originally of the little town of Digne, won wealth as merchants at Marseilles, and in 1570 Jean Riqueti bought the château and seigniory of Mirabeau, which had belonged to the great Provencal family of Barras.
On retiring from the service he married Francoise de Castellane, and left at his death, in 1737, three sons - Victor marquis de Mirabeau, Jean Antoine, bailli de Mirabeau, and Comte Louis Alexandre de Mirabeau.
The great Mirabeau was the eldest surviving son of the marquess.
The love affairs of Mirabeau form a well-known history, owing to the celebrity of the letters to Sophie.
As to the marquess, his use of lettres de cachet is perfectly defensible on the theory of lettres de cachet, and Mirabeau, if any son, surely deserved such correction.
Mirabeau did not develop his great qualities of mind and character until his youthful excesses were over, and it was not till 1781 that these began to appear.
The affair ended by his escaping to Switzerland, where Sophie joined him; they then went to Holland, where he lived by hackwork for the booksellers; meanwhile Mirabeau had been condemned to death at Pontarlier for rapt et vol, and in May 1777 he was seized by the French police, and imprisoned by a lettre de cachet in the castle of Vincennes.
Mirabeau first set to work to get the sentence of death still hanging over him reversed, and by his eloquence not only succeeded in this but got M.
The latter became particularly attached to him, and really understood his character; and it is strange that his remarks upon Mirabeau in the fragment of autobiography which he left, and Mirabeau's letters to him, should have been neglected by French writers.
Romilly was introduced to Mirabeau by Sir Francis D'Ivernois (1757-1842), and readily undertook to translate into English the Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus, which Mirabeau had written in 1785.
This luminous judgment, it must be noted, was written by a man of acknowledged purity of life, who admired Mirabeau in early life not when he was a statesman, but when he was only a struggling literary man.
The Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus which Romilly translated was the only important work Mirabeau wrote in the year 1785, and it is a good specimen of his method.
One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
The letters just mentioned show clearly what Mirabeau did and what he saw, and equally clearly how unfit he was to be a diplomatist.
His failure to control the theorizers showed Mirabeau, after the removal of the king and the Assembly to Paris, that his eloquence would not enable him to guide the Assembly by himself, and that he must therefore try to get some support.
Mirabeau tried for a time, too, to act with Necker, and obtained the sanction of the Assembly to Necker's financial scheme, not because it was good, but because, as he said, "no other plan was before them, and something must be done."
His acquaintance with Mirabeau, begun in 1788, ripened during the following year into a friendship, which La 11/Iarck hoped to turn to the advantage of the court.
After the events of the 5th and 6th of October he consulted Mirabeau as to what measures the king ought to take, and Mirabeau, delighted at the opportunity, drew up an admirable state paper, which was presented to the king by Monsieur, afterwards Louis XVIII.
Mirabeau at first attempted again to make an alliance with Lafayette, but it was useless, for Lafayette was not a strong man himself and did not appreciate "la force" in others.
From the month of May 1790 to his death in April 1791 Mirabeau remained in close and suspected, but not actually proved, connexion with the court, and drew up many admirable state papers for it.
Dumont was a Genevese exile, and an old friend of Romilly's, who willingly prepared for him those famous addresses which Mirabeau used to make the Assembly pass by sudden bursts'of eloquent declamation; Claviere helped him in finance, and not only worked out his figures, but even wrote his financial discourses; Lamourette wrote the speeches on the civil constitution of the clergy; Reybaz not only wrote for him his famous speeches on the assignats, the organization of the national guard, and others, which Mirabeau read word for word at the tribune, but even the posthumous speech on succession to the estates of intestates, which Talleyrand read in the Assembly as the last work of his dead friend.
Yet neither the gold of the court nor another man's conviction would make Mirabeau say what he did not himself believe, or do what he did not himself think right.
For details of his life consult Peuchet, Mirabeau: Memoires sur sa vie litteraire et privee (1824); and the Memoires biographiques, litteraires et politiques de Mirabeau, ecrits par lui-meme, par son pere, son oncle et son fits adoptif, which was issued by his adopted son, Lucas de Montigny (8 vols., Paris, 1834-1835).
See also Etienne Dumont, Souvenirs sur Mirabeau (1832), a work which has been translated into English by Lady E.
Seymour as The Great Frenchman and the Little (xenevese (1904); Louise Colet, La Jeunesse de Mirabeau (1841); and Alfred Begis, Mirabeau, son interdiction judiciaire (1895).
The publication of the Correspondance entre Mirabeau et le comae de la Marck, by A.
De Bacourt (2 vols., 1851) marks an epoch in our exact knowledge of Mirabeau and his career; some additional letters appeared in the German edition (3 vols., Leipzig, 1851-1852).
Other published correspondence is Lettres de Mirabeau a Chamfort (1796); Lettres du comte de Mirabeau b Jacques Mauvillon (Brunswick, 1792); Lettres originates de Mirabeau, ecrites du donjon de Vincennes, 1777-178Q, published by L.
P. Manuel (4 vols., 1792); and, on the same subject, Paul Cottin, Sophie de Monnier et Mirabeau d'apres leur correspondance inedite (1903); Lettres a Julie, edited by' D.
Welschinger's La Mission secrete de Mirabeau a Berlin (Paris, 1900).
The most useful modern books are Louis and Charles de Lomenie, Les Mirabeau (5 vols., 1878 and 1889); Alfred Stern, Das Leben Mirabeaus (1889).
Reynald, Mirabeau et la constituante (1873).
Willert, Mirabeau (1898) in the "Foreign Statesman" series; C. F.
Warwick, Mirabeau and the French Revolution (1905); W.
Trowbridge, Mirabeau, the demi-god (1907); H.
Fling, Mirabeau and the French Revolution (London and New York, 1908).
Leloir, Mirabeau a Pontarlier (1886); Ferdinand Schwartz, Mirabeau and Marie Antoinette (Basel, 1891); and Alfred Mezieres, Vie de Mirabeau (1892).
It was through her staunch defence of Mirabeau in Poitou that John got possession of his nephew's person.
Quesnay and Mirabeau had advocated a proportional tax (impot de quotite), but Turgot a distributive tax (impot de repartition).
Dumont, the learned Genevan, once the associate of Mirabeau, were all who sat down to table.
Since the death of Mirabeau no one had appeared who could strike the happy mean and enforce his will on the extremes on either side.
Desmoulins was powerfully swayed by the influence of more vigorous minds; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had begun to be led by Danton, with whom he remained associated during the rest of his life.
The president was Condorcet, and amongst the members were the duc de la Rochefoucault, the Abbe Gregoire, Brissot, Claviere, Petion and La Fayette; Mirabeau was an active sympathizer.
The success of the issue was undoubted, and, possibly, if the assignats had been restricted, as Mirabeau at first desired, to the extent of one-half the value of the lands sold, they would not have shared the usual fate of inconvertible paper money.
In the latter year Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (1798-1859) established here the Columbus Independent, a State's-Rights newspaper.
See Kersaint's own works, Le Bon Sens (1789); the Rubicon (1789); Considerations sur la force publique et l'institution des gardes nationales (1789); Lettre a Mirabeau (1791); Moyens presentes a l'Assemblee nationale pour retablir la paix et l'ordre dans les colonies; also E.
During the early years of the Revolution he issued several pamphlets against Mirabeau, who returned his ill-will with interest, calling him "the ignorant and bombastic M.
Mirabeau had approached him so early as December 1788, with a plan for the policy to be pursued by the court towards the new states general; but Montmorin, offended by Mirabeau's attacks on Necker and by his Histoire secrete de la tour de Berlin, refused to see him.