Courageously facing the difficulties of his new position, which included a serious lack of funds, he deposed the subadar of Bengal, Mir Jafar, whom he replaced by his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, a circumstance which increased the influence of England in the province.
Vansittart sought to check this, and in 1762 he made a treaty with Mir Kasim, but the majority of his council were against him and in the following year this was repudiated.
There is also preceding this title-page an ornamental title-page, similar to that of the Descriptio of 1614; the words are different, however, and run - Mir fici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio ...
- Alongside the local organs of the central government in Russia there are three classes of local elected bodies charged with administrative functions: (I) the peasant assemblies in the mir and the volost, ' From Catherine II.'s time to that of Alexander II.
Three-quarters of the population of Russia) form a class apart, 4 largely excepted from the incidence of the ordinary law, and governed in accordance with their local customs. The mir itself, with its customs, is of immemorial antiquity (see Village Communities); it was not, however, till the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 that the village community was withdrawn from the patrimonial jurisdiction of the landowning nobility and endowed with self-government.
The assembly of the mir consists of all the peasant householders of the village.'
They were also charged with the maintenance of order in the mir and the family, punishing infractions of the religious law, husbands who beat their wives, and parents who ill-treated their children.
These allotments were given over to the rural commune (mir), which was made responsible, as a whole, for the payment of taxes for the allotments.
In Little Russia, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes.
There has been an increase of wealth among the few, but along with this a general impoverishment of the mass of the people, and the peculiar institution of the mir, framed on the principle of community of ownership and occupation of the land, was not conducive to the growth of individual effort.
Thirteen years previously the government had endeavoured to secure greater fixity and permanence of tenure by providing that at least twelve years must elapse between every two redistributions of the land belonging to a mir amongst those entitled to share in it.'
In 1349 a great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it became wakf (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mir Ahmed, surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.
In Herat, where he spent the greater part of his life, he gained the favour of that famous patron of letters, Mir `Alishir (1440-1501), who served his old schoolfellow, the reigning sultan Husain (who as the last of the Timurides in Persia ascended the throne of Herat in 1468), first as keeper of the seal, afterwards as governor of Jurjan.
At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.
The administration of kazas, or cantons, was usually entrusted to the cadis and the holders of the more important fiefs; the sanjaks, or departments, were ruled by alai beys or mir-i-livas (colonels or brigadiers), pashas with one horsetail; the vilayets, or provinces, by beylerbeys or mir-i-mirans (lord of lords), pashas with two horse-tails; these were all originally military officers, who, in addition to their administrative functions, were charged with the duty of mustering and commanding the feudal levies in war time.
Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
In 1859 the Kataghan Usbegs were expelled; and Mir Jahander Shah, the representative of the modern royal line,was reinstatedat Faizabad under the supremacy of the Afghans.
In 1867 he was expelled by Abdur Rahman and replaced by Mir Mahommed Shah, and other representatives of the same family.
Even here, however, the main central water-divide, or axis of the chain, is apparently not the line of highest peaks, which must be looked for to the south, where the great square-headed giant called Tirach Mir dominates Chitral from a southern spur.
Here he gained several victories, and in conjunction with the famous general, Mir Jumla, who had deserted from the king of Golconda, he seized and plundered the town of Hyderabad, which belonged to that monarch.
Shuja, who had been a second time defeated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces under Mir Jumla and Mahommed, Aurangzeb's eldest son, who, however, deserted and joined his uncle.
The following are some representative periodicals of the day: Zurnal;ninistersva narodnago prosvescenija, monthly; Baltische Monatsschrift (1860), monthly; V'yestnik vospitania (for education); Mir iskusstra (for fine art); Russkoie bogatstvo (for literature); Russki arkhiv (archives); Mir Boji, monthly; Istorichesky v'yestnik (history); Russkaia starina (archaeology).
" lord of the treasury"), sometimes mere dignity, as in the case of the title of honour borne by all descendants of the Prophet, or of the title Mir assumed by men of great rank in the Far East.
The most notable of the mosques is the Mir-Arab, built in the 16th century, with its beautiful lecture halls; the chief mosque of the emir is the Mejid-kalyan, or Kok-humbez, close by which stands a brick minaret, 203 ft.
He bought, and edited with great success, the Russkiy Mir in Slavonic interests, devoting himself to the Panslavic idea.
For the personal character and administration of Hyder Ali see the History of Hyder Naik, written by Mir Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani (translated from the Persian by Colonel Miles, and published by the Oriental Translation Fund), and the curious work written by M.
Wheeler, F.R.G.S., The Amir Abdur Rahman (London, 1895); The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., edited by Mir Munshi, Sultan Mahommed Khan (2 vols., London, 1900); At the Court of the Amir, by J.
On its fall (1785) the throne was seized by the Manghit family in the person of Mir Ma'sum, who pretended to the most extravagant sanctity, and proved by his military career that he had no small amount of ability.
The principal histories of Mahmud's reign are - Kitab-iYamini (Utbi); Tarikh-us-Subuktigin (Baihaki); Tabakat i Nasiri (Minhaj el-Siraj); Rauzat-us-Safa (Mir Khond); Habib-us-Sivar (Khondamir).
The chief peaks in the province are Kaisargarh (11,300 ft.) and Pir Ghol (11,580 ft.) in Waziristan; Shekh Budin (4516 ft.), in the small range; Sikaram (15,621 ft.) in the Safed Koh; Istragh (18,900 ft.), Kachin (22,641 ft.) and Tirach Mir (25,426 ft.), in the Hindu Kush on the northern border of the Chitral agency; while the Kagan peaks in Hazara district run from 10,000 ft.
He wrote also Ueber die Idee der Universitdten (1835), and Ueber geheime Verbindungen auf Universitdten (1835); works on religious subjects, Karikaturen des Heiligsten (1819-1821); Wie ich weeder Lutheraner wurde and was mir das Luthertum ist (1831); Von der falschen Theologie and dem wahren Glauben (new ed., 1831); poetical works, Die Familien Walseth and Leith (1827); Die vier Norweger (1828); Malcolm (1831), collected in 1837 under the title of Novellen.
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.
Who was placed on the throne with the title al-A mir biahkm allah, and for twenty years was under the tutelage of al-Afdal.
The district was acquired by the East India Company under the treaty with Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760, and confirmed by the emperor Shah Alam in 1765.
Even more than Herder's precept and example, this passion showed Goethe how trivial and artificial had been the Anacreontic and pastoral poetry with which he had occupied himself in Leipzig; and the lyrics inspired by Friederike, such as Kleine Blumen, kleine Blcitter and Wie herrlich leuchtet mir die Natur!
Under the latter it had remained from 1642 till 1708, when in the reign of Husain, the last of them, the Ghilzais, provoked by the oppressive Persian governor Shahnawaz Khan (a Georgian prince of the Bagratid house), revolted under Mir Wais, and expelled the Persians.
Mir Wais was acknowledged sovereign of Kandahar, and eventually defeated the Persian armies sent against him, but did not long survive (d.
Mahmud, the son of Mir Wais, a man of great courage and energy, carried out a project of his father's, the conquest of Persia itself.
But there was a traitor in the Mahommedan camp in the person of Mir Jafar, who had married a sister of the late nawab, Ali Vardi Khan.
Clive, again following in the steps of Dupleix, placed his nominee, Mir Jafar, upon the masnad at Murshidabad, being careful to obtain a patent of investiture from the Mogul court.
Enormous sums were exacted from Mir Jafar as the price of his elevation.
Mir Jafar was anxious to buy off the shahzada, who had already invested Patna.
In 1761 it was found expedient and profitable to dethrone Mir Jafar, the nawab of Murshidabad, and substitute his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, in his place.
But Mir Kasim proved to possess a will of his own, and to cherish dreams of independence.
But as soon as regular warfare commenced Mir Kasim met with no more successes.
In 1657 Silesius published under the title Heilige Seelenlust, oder geistliche Hirtenlieder der in ihren Jesum verliebten Psyche (1657), a collection of 205 hymns, the most beautiful of which, such as, Liebe, die du mich zum Bilde deiner Gottheit hast gemacht and Mir nach, spricht Christus, unser Held, have been adopted in the German Protestant hymnal.
His general, Mir Jumla, defeated the rajah, who fled to the mountains, and most of the chiefs made their submission to the conqueror.
But the rains set in with unusual violence, and Mir Jumla's army was almost annihilated by famine and sickness.
He was put to death on the 4th of July 1757 at Murshidabad, by order of Miran, son of Mir Jafar, who had conspired against Suraj-ud-Dowlah and had been present at Plassey without taking part in the battle.
Chittagong was ceded to the East India Company by Nawab Mir Kasim in 1760.