The Altai, the still unnamed complex of the Minusinsk Mountains, the intricate mountain-chains of Sayan, with those of the Olekma, Vitim and Aldan all arranged en echelon - the former from N.W.
Thus, the Kaibals left the Sayan mountains and took possession of the Abakan steppe (Minusinsk region), abandoned by the Kirghizes, in the earlier years of last century, and in N.E.
Siberia, on the Altai, and on the Yenisei in the Minusinsk region, are relics of Ugro-Samoyedes.
The Kaibals, or Koibals, can hardly be distinguished from the Minusinsk Tatars, and support themselves by rearing cattle.
3 See " General Sketch of the Orography of Siberia," with map and " Sketch of the Orography of Minusinsk, &c.," by Prince P. A.
The flora of Minusinsk - the Italy of Siberia - is well known; the prairies on the Ishim and of the Baraba steppe are adorned with the same rich 'vegetation, so graphically described by Middendorff and O.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
Twelve natural history and ethnological museums have been established by the exiles - the Minusinsk museum being the best.
The Minusinsk district, one of the richest in Siberia (45,000 inhabitants, of whom 24,000 are nomadic), has more than 45,000 acres under crops.
On the Yenisei steamers ply from Minusinsk to Yeniseisk, and to Ghilghila at its mouth; on its tributary, the Angara, of which some rapids have been cleared, though the Padun rapids have still to be rounded by land; and on the Selenga.
Augmented by the Abakan on the left and the Tuba on the right, it traverses the mining region of Minusinsk, approaches within 6 m.
It is navigable as far up as Minusinsk, a distance of 1840 m., and is free from ice on the average for 155 days at Turukhansk and for 196 days at Krasnoyarsk.
They are known under the name of Sagais, who numbered 11,720 in 1864, and are the purer Turkish stem of the Minusinsk Tatars, Kaibals, and Kizil or Rod Tatars.