Coins from the London and Australian mints are examined.
Five-sixths of these coins preserved at Stockholm were from the mints of the Samanian dynasty, which reigned in Khorasan and Transoxiana from about A.D.
Accordingly in June 1893 an act was passed closing the Indian mints to the free coinage of silver.
There is a reference to it dated 1229 and a clear reference dated 1329.9 According to Ruding, there were over fifty mints in the reign of Edward the Confessor.
The National Democratic Convention declared for the immediate opening of the mints to the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio with gold of 16 to 1; and it nominated for the presidency William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, who also received the nomination of the People's party and of the National Silver party.
There were then eight mints at work, a fact which exhibits evidence of great activity and the need of coin for the purposes of trade.
The existence of mints before the arrival of the Romans.
The Romans at first imported their coins, and no Roman mints were established until about the end of the 3rd century, when coins were being struck at London and Colchester.
4 In Anglo-Saxon times Athelstan appears to have been the first monarch who enacted regulations for the mints.'
After the Norman Conquest the mints increased to about seventy, a greater number than now exists in the world, but they were gradually reduced and in the reign of Edward I.
Ruding enumerates 128 mints operated at various times in the United Kingdom, including some established by usurpation, as in the reign of Stephen by certain barons, and also mints established by grants to ecclesiastics to be worked for their own profit.
The provincial mints were all closed just before the reign of Mary, who coined in London only.
Set up small mints in various towns, and for the great re-coinage in the reign of William III.
Mints were established at York, Chester, Exeter, Bristol and Norwich, but were soon abandoned.
1 Coinage in Dublin began in AngloSaxon times and came to an end in the reign of William III.2 The other Irish mints were of little importance.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
The Calcutta mint was established by the East India Company in 1757, but other mints in Bengal continued to be used till about 1835, when the Calcutta mint was rebuilt.
The Calcutta and Bombay mints are still in operation.
In Australia there are three mints, Sydney, opened in 1855, Melbourne, opened in 1872, and Perth, opened in 1899.
Other mints are now in operation at New Orleans, San Francisco and Denver.
In most European countries a single mint situated at the capital is found to be sufficient, but there are six mints in the German Empire and two in Austria-Hungary.
In China 26 mints were at work in 1906.
There are also mints at Osaka, Bangkok and Teheran, and the Seoul mint was at work in 1904.
In Mexico 11 mints formerly existed, but one only, in the city of Mexico, remained open in 1907.
In South America there are mints at Lima, Santiago, Buenos Ayres and Tegucigalpa.
No mints are in operation in Africa.
In all there are nearly 70 mints in the world.
In European mints generally little difficulty is experienced in procuring refined gold and silver for coinage.
In Australia, the United States, Japan and some other countries, the Mints receive unrefined gold from the mines and refine it before it is coined.
(6) Annealing the blanks and (in some mints) cleaning them in acid.
In some other mints still larger crucibles are used, containing various amounts up to about moo kilograms or over 30,000 oz.
In foreign mints the molten metal is generally transferred from the crucible to the moulds by dipping crucibles or iron ladles covered with clay.
In many mints the flues pass into condensing chambers where volatilized gold and silver are recovered.
In some mints the fillets are annealed frequently, the fillets for one-mark pieces at the Berlin mint, for example, being annealed four times in the course of rolling.
In some mints the drag-bench or draw-bench is used after the rolls to equalize the thickness of the fillets.
In most foreign mints the blanks are weighed by the automatic balances before being struck, and those which are too heavy are reduced by filing or planing.
Coins of foreign mints are generally submitted to examination by a committee of eminent chemists and metallurgists whose report is published in the official journals.
Byelyashevsky, The Mints of Kiev.
The coinage takes place in the six mints belonging to the various states thus Berlin (Prussia), Munich (Bavaria), Dresden (in the Muldenerhtte near Freibcrg, Saxony), Stuttgart (WUrttemberg), Karlsruhe (Baden) and Hamburg (for the state of Hamburg).
These include fragments of custumals, records of the military service due, of markets, mints, and so forth.
An ounce of dust in 1848 frequently went for $4 instead of $17; for a number of years traders in dust were sure of a margin of several dollars, as for example in private coinage, mints for which were common by 1851.
Silver-mining ceased to be highly remunerative beginning with the closing of the India mints and repeal of the Sherman Law in 1893; since 1900 the yield has shown an extraordinary decrease - in 1905 it was $6,945,581, and in 1907 $7,411,652 - and it is said that as a result of the great fall in the market value of the metal the mines can now be operated only under the most favourable conditions and by exercise of extreme economy.
A later series of shekels, belonging to the Roman period, are tetradrachms, "which came from the mints of Caesarea and Antioch and were used as blanks on which to impress Jewish types."
A flourishing commerce, however, soon grew up in the Scandinavian towns; mints were established, and many foreign traders - Flemings, Italians and others - settled there.
Several mints had been established since Richard of York's time; the standards varied and imitation was easy.
All jurisdiction over their lands was vested in them, no new mints or toll-centres were to be erected on their domains, and the imperial authority was restricted to a small and dwindling area.
The necessity for so many mints lay in the imperfect means of communication.
This system was introduced into the Indian mints in 1873.
By it private war was declared unlawful, except in cases where justice could not be obtained; a chief justiciar was appointed for the Empire; all tolls and mints erected since the death of Henry VI.
In 1893 the Indian mints were closed to the free coinage of silver, and in 1899 the British sovereign was made legal tender at the rate of 1 s.