From an almost contemporary period he has been the subject of song; and he who was chanted by wandering minstrels in the 12th century has survived to be hymned in revolutionary odes of the 19th.
Their most characteristic literature is to be found, not in their writings, but in the folk-tales which are trans mitted orally from generation to generation, and repeated by the wandering minstrels called by the people Peng-lipor Lara, i.
Their favourite pursuits were fighting, either against a common enemy or among themselves, hunting, hawking and listening to the minstrels who celebrated their exploits.
The lord of Rappoltstein was the king or protector of the wandering minstrels of the land, who purchased his protection by paying him a tax.
The minstrels had a pilgrimage chapel near Rappoltsweiler, dedicated to their patron saint, Maria von Dusenbach, and here they held an annual feast on the 8th of September.
The mansion is quadrangular, and has a fine court, chapel and hall (c. 1341) with open timber roof and a minstrels' gallery.
Englishmen must not speak the Irish tongue, nor receive Irish minstrels into their dwellings, nor even ride in the Irish fashion; while to give or sell horses or armour to the Irish was made a treasonable offence.
Then the " two ancient and grave knights " returned and led him to the chapel, the esquires going before them " sporting and dancing " with " the minstrels making melody."
Afterwards he was taken back to his chamber, and remained in bed until the knights, esquires and minstrels went to him and aroused him.
Probably the poets of the Homeric school - that which dealt with war and adventure - were the genuine descendants of minstrels whose " lays " or " ballads " were the amusement of the feasts in an earlier heroic age; whereas the Hesiodic compositions were non-lyrical from the first, and were only in verse because that was the universal form of literature.
Feeling the difficulty of supposing that all the ancient minstrels sang of the " wrath of Achilles " or the " return of Ulysses " (leaving out even the capture of Troy itself), he was led to assume that two poems of no great compass dealing with these two themes became so famous at an early period as to throw other parts of the Trojan story into the background, and were then enlarged by successive generations of rhapsodists.
In the heroic age the Gandharvas have become the heavenly minstrels plying their art at Indra's court, with the Apsaras as their wives or mistresses.
The most accomplished minstrels of his time were Mlnst,aels Mahommed FarklSdi (or FarSlSwI); Abfl l-Abbks of 10th of BokhSrg, a writer of very tender verses; Abu Century.
"We can all be minstrels to-night," said the chief cook.
At evening, the distant lowing of some cow in the horizon beyond the woods sounded sweet and melodious, and at first I would mistake it for the voices of certain minstrels by whom I was sometimes serenaded, who might be straying over hill and dale; but soon I was not unpleasantly disappointed when it was prolonged into the cheap and natural music of the cow.