EVELETH, a city of St Louis county, Minnesota, U.S.A., about 71 m.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
AUSTIN, a city and the county-seat of Mower county, Minnesota, U.S.A., on the Red Cedar river and Turtle creek, (by rail) 105 m.
Austin is the seat of the Southern Minnesota Normal College and Austin School of Commerce (1896), and has a Carnegie library, court house and city hall.
CLOQUET, a city of Carlton county, Minnesota, U.S.A., on the St Louis river, 28 m.
- Schleswig-Holstein, Minnesota, Illinois, Louisiana.
Shropshire, Wales, Bohemia, Sweden, Esthonia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland, New York, Pennsylvania [?], Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, New Mexico, New Caledonia.
MINNESOTA, a North Central State of the United States of America.
Only in the valleys of the Red, Minnesota and Mississippi rivers does the elevation fall below 800 ft.
(about 50 being navigable) formed the boundary between Wisconsin and Minnesota, enters the Mississippi at Hastings; the second, rising in Big Stone Lake on the western border, but 1 m.
Glacial action determined the direction and character of the rivers, made numerous swamps, and, by scouring out rock basins, damming rivers and leaving morainal hollows, determined the character and formation of the lakes, of which Minnesota has upwards of io,000, a number probably exceeding that of any other state in the Union.
This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
Minnesota ranked third among the states of the Union in 1900 in the production of lumber, but in 1905 was fifth, the supply having diminished and the industry having been developed in the states of Washington and Louisiana.
Minnesota has the characteristic climate of the North Central group of states, with a low mean annual temperature, a notably rarefied atmosphere that results in an almost complete absence of damp foggy weather, and an unusual dryness which during the rather long winters considerably neutralizes the excessive cold.
The surface drifts of the greater part of the state, which are almost wholly of glacial origin, have provided Minnesota with a remarkably fertile soil.
Minnesota ranked first among the states in 1902 in the production of iron ore.
Since that date the development of iron mining in Minnesota has been remarkable, and the increase both in volume and value of the output has been practically uninterrupted.
Geographically the wheat-raising area extends across the entire south of the state - the Minnesota Valley and the Red River Valley - the rich glacial loam of which renders it one of the most productive wheat regions in the world.
The extraordinary numbers of utilizable water-powers, the unusual transport facilities affording ample means of reaching the great markets, and finally the proximity to the raw materials of manufacture, have made Minnesota of great importance as a manufacturing state.
The wonderful development of Minnesota as a flour-producing state began with the introduction of improved roller processes after 1870.
Minneapolis is the chief flour-making centre of the world, and the cities at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin, considered industrially as one place) constitute the second largest centre.
As compared with other states of the Union Minnesota ranked third in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in lumber; sixth in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in cheese, butter and condensed milk; eighth in 1900 and in 1905 in agricultural implements; and fourteenth in 1900 and eighth in 1905 in planing-mill products.
For an inland state Minnesota is exceptionally well situated to play a chief part in the commercial life of the country, and various causes combine to make it important in respect to its interstate and foreign trade.
Seven navigable rivers within or on the borders of the state - the Red River of the north, the Red Lake River, Rainy River, the Minnesota, the Mississippi, the St Croix and the St Louis 1 - give facilities for transport by water that exert an important competing influence on freight charges; and at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth-Superior) many lines of steamships on the Great Lakes, providing direct or indirect connexion with the Eastern and Southern states, make that port in respect to tonnage the first in the United States.
Provided with transport facilities, which renders its cities the principal distributing centres both for the entire Northwest for coal shipped via the Great Lakes, and also for the eastern and middle Western states for the great staples, wheat and lumber, derived either from Minnesota itself or by means of its great transcontinental railways from the neighbouring Northwestern states and Canadian provinces.
Expenditures from the fund known as " The Internal Improvement Land Fund," derived from the sale of state lands, can be made only after the enactment for that purpose has been approved by the voters of the state; in 1881 the legislature, and in 1884 the popular vote, pledged the proceeds of this fund to the payment of Minnesota state railway adjustment bonds.
The grounds for an absolute divorce in Minnesota are adultery, impotence, cruel and inhuman treatment, sentence to state prison or state reformatory subsequent to the marriage, desertion or habitual drunkenness for one year next preceding the application for a divorce.
The university of Minnesota at Minneapolis was projected by the Territorial Legislature of 1851.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
The first European visitors to the territory now embraced in the state of Minnesota found it divided between two powerful Indian tribes, the Ojibways or Chippewas, who occupied the heavily wooded northern portion and the region along the Mississippi river, and the Sioux or Dakotas, who made their homes on the more open rolling country in the south and west and in the valley of the Minnesota.
Pike led an exploring expedition as far north as Leech Lake and took formal possession of the Minnesota region for the United States.
Square at the mouth of the St Croix River and another containing about 100,000 acres at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers.
In 1823 extensive explorations of the Minnesota and Red River valleys were conducted by Major Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864), and subsequently (1834-1836) knowledge of the region was extended by the investigations of the artist George Catlin (1796-1872), the topographer George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866), and the geologist Jean Nicholas Nicollett (1786-1843).
On the erection of Wisconsin Territory in 1836 the whole of Minnesota, which then extended westward to the Missouri river, was incorporated with it, but on the erection of Iowa Territory in 1838 Minnesota was divided and the part west of the Mississippi became a part of Iowa Territory.
This situation did not last long, however, for on the 3rd of March 1849 the bill organizing the territory of Minnesota was passed, and on the 19th President Zachary Taylor appointed Alexander Ramsey of Pennsylvania the first territorial governor.
Minnesota furnished more than 25,000 troops for the Federal armies during the Civil War.
Consult also Materials for the Future History of Minnesota, published by the State Historical.
Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the Sources of the St Peter (Minnesota) River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake of the Woods, &c....
Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor (2 vols., London, 1847); Laurence Oliphant, Minnesota and the Far West (Edinburgh, 1855); and Frederika Bremer, The Homes of the New World: Impressions of America (2 vols., New York, 1864).
Seymour, Sketches of Minnesota, the New, England of the West (New York, 1850); J.
Wesley Bond, Minnesota and its Resources (New York, 1853); C. A.
Andrews, Minnesota and Dacotah (Washington, 1857); and C. E.
Flandreau, The History of Minnesota and Tales of the Frontier (St Paul, 1901).
The Collections of the Minnesota State Historical Society contain much valuable material on the history of the state, notably E.
Neill's " French Voyageurs to Minnesota during the Seventeenth Century " (1872); E.
Moran's " How Minnesota became a State " (1898); H.
Moss's " Last Days of Wisconsin Territory and Early Days of Minnesota Territory " (1898);.
Flandreau's " Reminiscences of Minnesota during the Territorial Period " (1901); C. D.
Folwell's Minnesota, the North Star State (Boston, 1908), in the " American Commonwealth series "; E.
Neill's Concise History of Minnesota (Minneapolis, 1887); and T.