After similar ministries at Piacenza he himself fell ill.
The chief subjects of discussion were: the relations of faith and modern thought, the supply and training of the clergy, education, foreign missions, revision and "enrichment" of the Prayer-Book, the relation of the Church to "ministries of healing" (Christian Science, &c.), the questions of marriage and divorce, organization of the Anglican Church, reunion with other Churches.
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
During the first six years of federation there were five ministries; the tenure of office under the threeyearly system was naturally uncertain, and this uncertainty was reflected in the proposals of whatever ministry was in office.
There is a council of state with advisory functions, which can also decide certain questions of administration, especially applications from local authorities and conflicts between ministries, and a court of accounts, which has the right of examining all details of state expenditure.
Other important buildings are the Sobranye, or parliament house, the palace of the synod, the ministries of war and commerce, the university with the national printing press, the national library, the officers' club and several large military structures.
This deprives parliament of control over the administrative departments, all the ministries being thus " armour-plated " - to use the cant phrase current in Russia - except that of ways and communications (railways).
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
The expenditure was arrived at in the manner previously described - and when the general budget came to be made up the severest pruning was found necessary, the original demands of the various ministries and departments having resulted in a deficit of upwards of £T 9, 000,000.
Towards the end of Mahmud II.'s reign ministries had been instituted, and a council of ministers had been established, presided over by the grand vizier.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
Several ministries, in which various parties predominated for a time, now governed the country till 1848, during which period the rebellious province of Rio Grande was pacified, more by negotiation than force of arms. In 1848 hostilities were roused with the British government through the neglect shown by the Brazilians in putting in force a treaty for the abolition of the slave trade, which had been concluded as far back as 1826; on the other hand the governor of Buenos Aires, General Rosas, was endeavouring to stir up revolution again in Rio Grande.
Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.
The withdrawal of Tisza scarcely changed the situation, but the period of brief ministries now began.
Particular questions of importance, the Jerusalem bishopric, the healing of the Colenso schism in the diocese of Natal, the organization of native ministries and the like, occupied much of his time; and he did all in his power to foster the growth of local churches.
It is also the seat of the common ministries for the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, of the foreign ambassadors and general consuls and the meeting-place, alternately with Budapest, of the AustroHungarian delegations.
The next few years saw the introduction, under successive ministries, of Liberal reforms in the constitution, in criminal and civil law, and in education.
Two general elections and the defeat of four ministries within three years had done nothing to solve the difficulties of the situation.
The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care.
Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible.
The lowest administrative unit was the political sub-district (Bezirk) under an official (Bezirkshauptmann), who united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries according to their attributions.
History During the period from the assembly of the first Parliament elected by universal equal suffrage (1907) to the break-up of the Dual Monarchy, Austria itself had nine Governments under the following premiers: All these ministries may be characterized as Cabinets composed of Government officials.
The executive Government is placed in charge of 15 ministries concerned with the following matters: - foreign affairs, interior, finance, commerce, labour, food supplies, railways, health, social welfare, justice, agriculture, public instruction, national defence, posts and telegraphs, and the unification of laws.
The principle of unity of authority was set aside by the second republic in 1848, when many of the public services were attached to the corresponding ministries in Paris, and the departments organized on the metropolitan model by division into arrondissements and communes and by placing a prefect at their head.
This concession led, however, to the diminution of the authority of the governor-general, whose powers were, step by step, absorbed by the various ministries in France.
Under this system the plan of 1848 was carried out more completely, every department of state being placed under one or other of the ministries in Paris, whilst the governorgeneral became little more than an ornamental personage.
On the right bank of the Elbe in Neustadt stand the fine buildings of the ministries of war, of finance, justice, the interior and education.
(1782-1830); residences for the archimandrite and the vladika or metropolitan of Cettigne; a palace built in 1863, which accommodates the ministries; the court of appeal, and a school modelled on the gymnasia of Germany and Austria; the newer palaces of the prince and his heir; foreign legations; barracks; a seminary for priests and teachers, established by the tsar Alexander II.
The opposition of the "patriot" party, however, reinforced by the strong Catholic sentiment of the country, continued powerful, and it was only the steady support given by the king to successive Liberal ministries that prevented its finding disastrous expression in the parliament, where it remained in a greater or less majority till 1887, and has since, as the "centre," continued to form the most compact party in an assembly made up of "groups."
Until 1871 the surplus derived from the colonial budget had been turned into a deficit, and the necessity of imposing fresh taxes to meet the war expenses has led to the downfall both of individual ministries and of cabinets.
During the subsequent ministries of Korber and Gautsch the Bohemians continued to oppose the central government of Vienna, and to assert their national rights.
The ministries of war and marine together spent about £ 2,500,000 each year.
The sovereign exercised his executive power through a cabinet which was responsible to the cortes, and consisted of seven members, representing the ministries of (I) the interior, (2) foreign affairs, (3) finance, (4) justice and worship, (5) war, (6) marine and colonies, (7) public works, industry and commerce.
He was a member of various Cape ministries from 1875 onwards.
It was practically supreme in the state, a ministry independent of all other ministries, placed quite above them and responsible only to the tsar himself.
As a consequence of these conditions Conservative, Liberal and coalition ministries held office at short intervals.
It prepared all bills for the Riksdag, created and deposed all ministries, controlled the foreign policy of the nation, and claimed and often exercised the right of superseding the ordinary courts of justice.
West of the palace are the offices of the majority of the ministries, some of them in the former buildings of the Royal Mint.
The executive is entrusted to a president similarly chosen for six years (instead of four) and aided by a cabinet representing the five ministries of foreign affairs and education, finance, internal administration and justice, war and marine, and public works.
A vast activity animated the early Church: to heal the sick, to feed the hungry, to succour the diseased, to rescue the fallen, to visit the prisoners, to forgive the erring, to teach the ignorant, were ministries of salvation.
In the following year, after two unsuccessful attempts to construct new ministries he stood for the presidency of the republic; but the radicals, to whom his opportunism was distasteful, turned the scale against him by transferring the votes to M.