In most cases two distinct maxima and minima occur in the 24 hours.
And intended to eliminate irregular changes, but they also to some extent eliminate regular changes if the hours of maxima and minima or the character of the diurnal variation alter throughout the year.
The Two Minima Occur, The One From 5 To 7 A.M., The Other From 7 To 8 P.M.; They Are Nearly Equal.
The elementary parts of existence are the minima, or monads, which are at once material and mental.
But the average of two presi dential votes was 85.37%; and the maxima, minima and means for mayors and governors were respectively 83.86, 74.99, 78.36 and 8 4.73, 61.7 8, 75.7 2.
He also gave in his Fluxions, for the first time, the correct theory for distinguishing between maxima and minima in general, and pointed out the importance of the distinction in the theory of the multiple points of curves.
Newlands in England, that if they are arranged in the order of their atomic weights they fall into groups in which similar chemical and physical properties are repeated at periodic intervals; and in particular he showed that if the atomic weights are plotted as ordinates and the atomic volumes as abscissae, the curve obtained presents a series of maxima and minima, the most electro-positive elements appearing at the peaks of the curve in the order of their atomic weights.
For the subjects of this heading see the articles DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS; FOURIER'S SERIES; CONTINUED FRACTIONS; FUNCTION; FUNCTION OF REAL VARIABLES; FUNCTION COMPLEX; GROUPS, THEORY OF; INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS; MAXIMA AND MINIMA; SERIES; SPHERICAL HARMONICS; TRIGONOMETRY; VARIATIONS, CALCULUS OF.
There are therefore maxima and minima in the value of the tide-generating force, depending on the relative positions of the sun, earth and moon.
The theory of inequalities is closely connected with that of maxima and minima, and therefore seems to come properly under this head.
When z is great, the descending series (io) gives i 2J 1 (z) = 2 sin (z1 7r) 22; (2) z so that the places of maxima and minima occur at equal intervals.
The intensity may be expressed by 12= (2+Cv) 2 +(2+Sv) 2 and the maxima and minima occur when dC dS (z+Cv)a`j+(2+Sv)dV=0, whence sin rV 2 +cos27rV 2 =G..
The vapour pressure-composition curve will now be concave to the axis of composition, the minima corresponding to the pure components.
Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.
The range between the mean of the maxima of the summer months (June, July and August) and the mean of the minima of the winter months (December, January and February) is only from 88° to 50° at Galveston, but at Mount Blanco, Crosby county, on the eastern border of the Llano Estacado, it is from 90° to 26°.
From July 1877 to 1908 (inclusive) the mean of the minima for January, the coldest month of the year, was 44.16° F.; the mean of the minima for August, the warmest month, was 60.1° F.; and the difference of the mean temperature of the coldest and the warmest month was about 18° F.; while on five days only in this period (and on no day in the years 1904-1908) did the official thermometer fall below 32° F.
To Zenodorus (c. 200100 B.C.) is due the important problem in maxima and minima that for a given surface the sphere is the solid of maximum volume.
The absolute minima at these two places are respectively-46° and -29°; the absolute maxima, III ° and 1066°, and the mean annual temperatures, 42° and 46°.
The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
At Cape Thorsden from November to January there seems a distinct double period, with minima near noon and midnight.
All are observed frequencies, derived after Wolf's method; maxima and minima are in heavy type.
The maxima and minima in the two phenomena in a good many cases are not found in the same years.
On the other hand, there is absolute coincidence in a number of cases, some of them very striking, as for instance the remarkably low minima of 1810 and 1823.
The minima likewise are variable, but only slightly so.
It differs from the Algol type in having two unequal minima separated by two equal maxima.
Supposing that the two stars are of unequal surface brilliancy, the magnitude at minimum will depend on which of the two stars is the nearer to us, accordingly there are two unequal minima in each revolution.
When the two stars are of equal brilliancy the minima are equal; this is the case in variables of the Geminorum type.
And the mean summer temperature (June, July and August) 75°; the mean of the winter minima was 27°, and the mean of the summer maxima 85°.
As to minima within the period, the lowest totals for British possessions were: imports £91,851,534 in 1893, and exports, the figure quoted for 1895; for foreign countries, imports £312,836,644 in 1893, and exports £195,133,239 in 1894; grand totals, imports £ 4 0 4, 688,178 in 1893, and exports £273,785,867 in 1894.
The canyon of the Patia through the Western Cordillera is known as the "Minima gorge," and has been cut to a depth of 1676 ft., above which the perpendicular mountain sides rise like a wall some thousands of feet more.
At one point in its course it is crossed by the Rumichaca arch, a natural arch of stone, popularly known as the "Inca's bridge," which with the Minima gorge should be classed among the natural wonders of the world.
The fifth book contains properties of normals and their envelopes, thus embracing the germs of the theory of evolutes, and also maxima and minima problems, such as to draw the longest and shortest lines from a given point to a conic; the sixth book is concerned with the similarity of conics; the seventh with complementary chords and conjugate diameters; the eighth book, according to the restoration of Edmund Halley, continues the subject of the preceding book.
The second includes a "Method for the Quadrature of Parabolas," and a treatise "on Maxima and Minima, on Tangents, and on Centres of Gravity," containing the same solutions of a variety of problems as were afterwards incorporated into the more extensive method of fluxions by Newton and Leibnitz.