This oppression led to the device of " semi-periodical " publications, of which La Minerve francaise (1818-1820) is an instance.
Under the Restoration he was one of the chief editors of the Minerve francaise; he wrote also an essay, Sur le 18 Brumaire (1799), some Fragments politiques et litteraires (1817), and a treatise Des partis politiques et des factions de la pretendue aristocratie d'aujourd'hui (1819).
He became lieutenant in 1793, and in 1796, being then attached to the "Minerve" frigate, attracted the attention of Nelson by his gallant conduct.
He founded in 1818 with other Liberal journalists the Minerve francaise and in 1820 La Renommee.
After serving on the home station, and in the East Indies and the Mediterranean, he assisted, as captain of the "Minerve" (38) at the blockade of Leghorn in 1796, and fought a gallant action with the Spanish frigate "Sabina" (40) which he took.