In 1888 he was sent out as captain-general to the Philippines, where he dealt very sternly with the native rebels of the Carolines, of Mindanao and other provinces.
M.) is the most northerly, and Mindanao (36,292 sq.
Between Luzon and Mindanao are Samar (5031 sq.
The island of Mindanao is traversed north to south by mountain ranges, which rise in their summits to heights exceeding 4000 ft.
Farther west and south-west is the valley of the Rio Grande Mindanao, the largest river on the island, and between the lower course of this river and the south coast is a mountain range with a north-west and south-east trend.
On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.
Each of the larger islands between Luzon and Mindanao, except Samar and Bohol, is traversed longitudinally by a single mountain range with occasional spurs.
The Rio Grande de Mindanao (known in its upper course as the Rio Pulangua) drains to the south and west a larger area in central and southern Mindanao and is second in size.
It and the Agusan, which drains to the northward the mountain valley in east Mindanao, are each over 200 m.
In Mindanao there are lakes Lanao, Liguasan and Buluan in the west-central portion and lakes Mainit, Pinaya, Dagun, Sadocum and Linao in the valley of the Agusan.
They are Babuyan Claro, Camiguin de Babuyanes and Didicas in the Babuyanes Islands off the north coast of Luzon; Cagua or Caua in north Luzon; Taal, Mayon and Bulusan in south Luzon; Canlaon and Magaso in Negros; Camiguin de Mindanao in the island of Camiguin, off the north coast of Mindanao; and Apo and Calayo in Mindanao.
There were 8 in the year 1897 alone, and one of these ruined the town of Zamboanga in west Mindanao and caused considerable loss of life by falling buildings and immense sea waves.
Red or brown deer occur in Basilan, Mindanao, Leyte, Samar and the Calamianes Islands.
The water-buffalo, or caraboa, occurs in a wild state in Luzon, Mindoro, the Calamianes group, Masbate, Negros and Mindanao, but the wild herds are believed to have originated from domesticated animals.
Albino specimens of this monkey are not uncommon, but the pure white monkeys, not albinos, said to inhabit Mindanao, are mythical.
These genera usually have distinct representative species in Luzon, Samar and Leyte, Mindanao, and in some cases in Basilan also.
Sulu and Tawi Tawi belong zoologically to the Philippines, but have 12 well-marked peculiar species, and many of the characteristic Mindanao-Basilan forms are lacking.
The coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.
At Davao, Mindanao, in 7° I' N.
On the Pacific coast of Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao the rainy season is from November to May, when the winds blow from the east or the north-east.
At Zamboanga in west Mindanao to 152 in.
La Laguna, Luzon, was the only province in which more than 50% of the land was included in " farms," and Cebu the only island in which more than 25% of the land was included in farms; in the large island of Mindanao only 1.4%, in Masbate only 1.6%, and in Mindoro only 3.9%.
Most of the hemp (538,200 acres in 1902) is grown in south Luzon and in Samar and Leyte, but smaller crops are produced in Cebu, Mindoro, Marinduque, north Mindanao and south Negros; the crop became of commercial importance about 1855, and in 1907 the yield for export amounted to 112,895 tons.
There are, however, promising fields near Danao, in Cebu; on the island of Polillo, off the east coast of Luzon; in the south part of Mindoro; on Batan Island, off the south-east coast of Luzon; on Dinagat Island, off the north coast of Mindanao; and in the north-east corner of Negros.
Nearly all of them live in a primitive state in the interior of Luzon, Panay, Mindanao and Negros.
The Visayans are the principal inhabitants of the islands in the central part of the archipelago (Panay, Cebu, Negros, Leyte, Bohol, Samar, Masbate and Paragua) and on the north and east coasts of Mindanao; they were perhaps the most civilized people in the archipelago when discovered by the Spaniards, by whom they were originally called Pintados because they were in the habit of painting their bodies; but since then their progress has been less rapid than that of the Tagalogs - who constitute the bulk of the population of Manila and central Luzon and the majority of the population of Mindanao - who are now the most cultured of the brown races in the Philippines.
More than one-half of them are in Mindanao and they are the principal inhabitants of the small islands of Jolo, Basilan, Siassi and Tawi Tawi south-west of Mindanao.
Then sailing south he touched at Mindanao, from which he sailed north-west, past Bohol to Cebu.
Combes (1620-1665), Historia de Mindanao y Jolo (Madrid, 1897); J.