In 1888 he was sent out as captain-general to the Philippines, where he dealt very sternly with the native rebels of the Carolines, of Mindanao and other provinces.
The island of Mindanao is traversed north to south by mountain ranges, which rise in their summits to heights exceeding 4000 ft.
Farther west and south-west is the valley of the Rio Grande Mindanao, the largest river on the island, and between the lower course of this river and the south coast is a mountain range with a north-west and south-east trend.
On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.
Each of the larger islands between Luzon and Mindanao, except Samar and Bohol, is traversed longitudinally by a single mountain range with occasional spurs.
The Rio Grande de Mindanao (known in its upper course as the Rio Pulangua) drains to the south and west a larger area in central and southern Mindanao and is second in size.
It and the Agusan, which drains to the northward the mountain valley in east Mindanao, are each over 200 m.
In Mindanao there are lakes Lanao, Liguasan and Buluan in the west-central portion and lakes Mainit, Pinaya, Dagun, Sadocum and Linao in the valley of the Agusan.
There were 8 in the year 1897 alone, and one of these ruined the town of Zamboanga in west Mindanao and caused considerable loss of life by falling buildings and immense sea waves.
Red or brown deer occur in Basilan, Mindanao, Leyte, Samar and the Calamianes Islands.
Albino specimens of this monkey are not uncommon, but the pure white monkeys, not albinos, said to inhabit Mindanao, are mythical.
These genera usually have distinct representative species in Luzon, Samar and Leyte, Mindanao, and in some cases in Basilan also.
Sulu and Tawi Tawi belong zoologically to the Philippines, but have 12 well-marked peculiar species, and many of the characteristic Mindanao-Basilan forms are lacking.
The coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.
At Davao, Mindanao, in 7° I' N.
On the Pacific coast of Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao the rainy season is from November to May, when the winds blow from the east or the north-east.
At Zamboanga in west Mindanao to 152 in.
La Laguna, Luzon, was the only province in which more than 50% of the land was included in " farms," and Cebu the only island in which more than 25% of the land was included in farms; in the large island of Mindanao only 1.4%, in Masbate only 1.6%, and in Mindoro only 3.9%.
1899 he was sent to the Philippines as adjutant-general of the Department of Mindanao, and in 1901 was honourably discharged from volunteer service.
Soon after he returned to the Philippines as commander of the Department of Mindanao and governor of the Moro Province.
More than one-half of them are in Mindanao and they are the principal inhabitants of the small islands of Jolo, Basilan, Siassi and Tawi Tawi south-west of Mindanao.
Then sailing south he touched at Mindanao, from which he sailed north-west, past Bohol to Cebu.
Combes (1620-1665), Historia de Mindanao y Jolo (Madrid, 1897); J.