In Borneo the Hoinopteron Issus bruchoides mimics a species of Curculionid beetle of the genus Alcides.
Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.
A specimen of another butterfly (Precis sesamus) which mimics the Acraea was then offered in the same manner.
Another species of this group, the black cuckoo of India, apparently mimics the black drongo-shrike (Dicrurus ater), the resemblance between the two species being very close.
In the same island a species of Gryllacris mimics Pheropsophus aquatus, a " Bombardier " beetle which ejects a puff of volatile formic acid when attacked; and Condylodera tricondyloides mimics different species of tiger-beetles (Cicindelidae) at different stages of its growth.
This beetle probably mimics the Australian hornet (Abispa australis).
The immature form of the above-mentioned species of Membracidae mimics both ant and leaf-particle.
Another instance in this group is supplied by a Bornean species of Reduviidae which mimics a species of the genus Bracon, one of the parasitic Hymenoptera.
This forcibly suggests that the drone-fly mimics a honey-bee not only in appearance but also in the feel of its hairs or the nature of its buzz.
One of these sub-species, merope, which ranges from the west coast to Victoria Nyanza, is polymorphic and occurs under three forms, namely (a) hippocoon, which mimics the Danaine Amauris niavius; (b) trophonius, which mimics the Danaine Limnas chrysippus; (c) planemoides, which mimics the Acraeine Planema poggei.
To this category belong Myrmarachne plataleoides, one of the Salticidae, and Amyciaea forticeps, one of the Thomisidae, which in India imitate and live with the vicious little red ant (Oecophylla smaragdina); also Myrmarachne providens, which mimics the red and black Indian ant (Sima rufonigra); and the South American species of Clubionidae, e.g.
The resemblance shows various grades of completeness; and the convergent mimics may be themselves noxious, or edible and innocuous.
The mimicry of these insects therefore is synaposematic; but some, at all events, of the flies like the Bombylid Exoprosopa umbrosa, probably form pseudaposematic elements in the group. Into another category Hymenoptera enter not as models but as mimics, the models being inedible Malacodermatous beetles mostly belonging to the genus Lycus and characterized by orange coloration set off by a large black patch upon the posterior end of the elytra and a smaller black spot upon the thorax.
With the exception of the Asilid fly and perhaps some of the Longicorn and Phytophagous beetles, which are probably protected Batesian mimics, all the other species constituting the above-mentioned assemblage are, it is believed, Mullerian or synaposematic mimics.
In the three cases cited above, with the exception of the first, the synaposematic mimics are vastly in excess of the pseudaposematic; this appears to be the general rule elsewhere.