In 1901 he became private secretary to Lord Milner, then High Commissioner for South Africa, and remained with him till 5903.
Laughton's polemical treatise was published in 1780, and those of Milner and Taylor in 1781.
When Lord (then Sir Alfred) Milner visited Basutoland in 1898, on his way to Bloemfontein, he was received by 15,000 mounted Basuto.
ALFRED MILNER MILNER, VISCOUNT (1854-), British statesman and colonial administrator, was born at Bonn on the 23rd of March 1854, the only son of Charles Milner, M.D., whose wife was a daughter of Major-General Ready, sometime governor of the Isle of Man.
His paternal grandfather, an Englishman, settled in Germany and married a German lady; and their son, Charles Milner, practised as a physician in London and became later Reader in English at Tubingen University.
Alfred Milner was educated first at Tubingen, then at King's College, London, and under Jowett as a scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, from 1872 to 1876.
Milner returned to England in 1892, and was appointed chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue, being made C.B.
Sir Alfred Milner remained at the Board of Inland Revenue until 1897.
The situation resulting from the Jameson raid (see Transvaal and South Africa) was one of the greatest delicacy and difficulty, and Mr Chamberlain, now colonial secretary, selected Milner as Lord Rosmead's successor.
Sir Alfred Milner reached the Cape in May 1897, and after the difficulties with President Kruger over the Aliens' Law had been patched up he was free by August to make himself personally acquainted with the country and peoples before deciding on the lines of policy to be adopted.
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
That Milner had good grounds for his view of the situation is shown in a letter written (March 11) by Mr J.
Acting strictly in a constitutional manner, Milner thereupon (Oct.
Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898.
On the 4th of May Milner penned a memorable despatch to the Colonial Office, in which he insisted that the remedy for the unrest in the Transvaal was to strike at the root of the evil - the political impotence of the injured.
Milner felt that only the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal would give stability to the South African situation.
Milner then made the enactment by the Transvaal of a franchise law which would at once give the Johannesburgers a share in the government of the country his main, and practically his only, demand.
When war broke out, October 1899, Milner rendered the military authorities "unfailing support and wise counsels," being, in Lord Roberts's phrase "one whose courage never faltered."
Milner therefore returned to England to spend a "hard-begged holiday," which was, however, mainly occupied in work at the Colonial Office.
And privy councillor, and was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Milner of St James's and Cape Town.
Meanwhile the diplomacy of 1899 and the conduct of the war had caused a great change in the attitude of the Liberal party in England towards Lord Milner, whom Mr Leonard Courtney even characterized as "a lost mind."
Milner, who was then spending a brief holiday in Europe, was urged by Mr Balfour to take the vacant post of secretary of state for the colonies.
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
As a result of this left-handed censure, a counter-demonstration was organized, led by Sir Bartle Frere, and a public address, signed by over 370,000 persons, was presented to Lord Milner expressing high appreciation of the services rendered by him in Africa to the crown and empire.
Iwan-Muller, Lord Milner and South Africa (London, 1902); W.
Stead, "Sir Alfred Milner," in The Review of Reviews, vol.
So suspicious had the ministry become of the nature of the military preparations that were being made by the Boers, that in May 1899 they communicated their apprehensions to the High Commissioner, Sir Alfred Milner, who telegraphed on the 25th of May to Mr Chamberlain, informing him that Natal was uneasy.
Lord Palmerston was again prime minister, and having discovered that the advanced liberal party was not so easily "crushed" as he had apprehended, he made overtures of reconciliation, and invited Cobden and Milner Gibson to become members of his government.
His grave was surrounded by a large crowd of mourners, among whom were Gladstone, Bright, Milner Gibson, Charles Villiers and a host besides from all parts of the country.
Meantime Sir Alfred Milner had also endeavoured to induce the Transvaal government to grant the necessary reforms, but his efforts were equally unavailing (see Milner, Viscount).
Six days before Sir Alfred Milner had telegraphed to London a summary of the situation, comparing the position of the Uitlanders to that of helots and declaring the case for intervention to be overwhelming.
Alfred Milner to meet President Kruger at Bloemfontein, hoping to be able to exert pressure on both parties and to arrange a settlement as favourable as possible to Bioem- the Transvaal.
He offered, it is true, a seven years' franchise law in place of the five years' franchise which Sir Alfred Milner asked for.
Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
President Kruger had every expectation of large reinforcements from the Dutch in the two British colonies; he believed that, whatever happened, Europe would not allow Boer independence to be destroyed; and he had assured himself of the adhesion of the Orange Free State, though it was not till the very last moment that President Steyn formally notified Sir Alfred Milner of this fact.
Lord Roberts held the post of administrator of the colony until his departure for England in December following, when he was succeeded by Sir Alfred Milner, the high commissioner.
It was not, however, until March 1901 that Milner, who resigned his governorship of Cape Colony, arrived at Pretoria to inaugurate a civil administration.
1 Hostilities were still proceeding, but in the areas under control Lord Milner (who was raised to the peerage in May) speedily set the machinery of government in motion.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
The end of the military government was signalled by the assumption (on the 21st of June) by Lord Milner of the title of governor of the Transvaal and by the creation of an executive council.
Milner, anxious above everything else to obtain sufficient revenue to carry on his work of reconstruction, gave his consent to the experiment.
Lord Selborne, who had during 1905 succeeded Lord Milner as high commissioner and governor of the Transvaal, entrusted General Botha with the formation of a ministry.
Lord Milner, by the creation of an inter-colonial board - which administered the The Union Movement.
The leader of the Opposition from the first denounced the diplomatic steps taken by Lord Milner and Mr Chamberlain, and objected to all armed intervention or even preparation for hostilities.
Milner (2 vols., 1820); J.
Milner, Die Dorier (ed.
In May 1899 President Steyn suggested the conference at Bloemfontein between President Kruger and Sir Alfred Milner, but this act, if it expressed a genuine desire for reconciliation, was too late.
A civil administration of the colony was established early in 1901 with Sir Alfred Milner as, governor.
Goold-Adams was appointed lieutenant-governor, Milner being governor also of the Transvaal, which country claimed most of his attention.