In the hands of moralistic theologians, like Lactantius, they certainly assume a somewhat grotesque form, but the fact that these men clung to them is the clearest evidence that in the West millennarianism was still a point of "orthodoxy" in the 4th century.
By this doctrine of Augustine's, the old millennarianism, though not completely extirpated, was at least banished from the official theology.
At various periods in the history of the middle ages we encounter sudden outbreaks of millennarianism, sometimes as the tenet of a small sect, sometimes as a far-reaching movement.
In these men the millennarianism of the ancient church came to life again; and in the revolutionary movements of the i 5th and 16th centuries - especially in the Anabaptist movements - it appears with all its old uncompromising energy.
In contrast to the fanatics, after a brief hesitation they threw millennarianism overboard, and along with it all other "opiniones Judaicae."
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.