Lands were, however, purchased which were eventually taken over by the government and utilized for the erection of Millbank penitentiary, begun in 1813 and partially completed in 1816.
Millbank, as a new and most enlightened undertaking in prison affairs, was opened with much eclat.
The erection of Millbank was a step in the right direction.
Besides the building of Millbank it had promulgated many acts for the amelioration of prisoners.
Even in London itself, within easy reach of the palatial Millbank penitentiary, the chief prison of the city, Newgate, was in a disgraceful condition.
At Millbank, with its spacious solitary cells, the rule of seclusion was more and more strictly enforced.
Pentonville was available for the first phase; Millbank was also pressed into the service, and accommodation was hired in some of the best provincial prisons, as at Wakefield and Leicester.
De Tocqueville, Systeme penitentiaire aux E tatsUnis (1837); Crawford, Report on Penitentiaries (U.S.A., 1838); Maconochie, Prison Discipline (1856); Dr Guillaurne, Progress of Prison Discipline in Switzerland (1872); Arthur Griffiths, Memorials of Millbank (1873), Chronicles of Newgate (1882); Armingol y Cornet, Prisons and Prison Discipline in Spain (1874); Stevens, Regime des etablissements pe'nitentiaires en Belgique (1875); F.