After the revolution of 1868, when the mikado Mutsu-hito was restored, his uncle, Prince Taruhito Arisugawa (1835-1895), became commander-in-chief, and in 1875 president of the senate.
The latter prevailed, and in 1192 established the dual system of government under which the emperor or Mikado ruled only in name, and the real power was in the hands of a hereditary military chief called Shogun.
The influx of new ideas provoked civil war, in which the already decadent Shogunate was abolished and the authority of the Mikado restored.
In the civil war of 1868 the town was taken by the rebel fleet, but it was recovered by the mikado in 1869.
Already he was a marked man, and no sooner was the government reorganized, with the mikado as the sole wielder of power, than he was appointed chief assistant in the department of foreign affairs.
The accession of a new mikado in 1868 finally ended the old seclusion; financiers, engineers, artisans poured in from Western Europe, and from America came bands of teachers, largely under missionary influence.
When (1904) his country became embroiled in war with Russia, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Japanese armies in Manchuria, and in the sequel of Japan's victory the mikado bestowed on him (1907) the rank of prince.
Said Motowori (18th century), " the Mikado is the child of the Sun-goddess."
As a reward for his conspicuous services in connexion with the Chinese War Ito was made a marquis, and in 1897 he accompanied Prince Arisugawa as a joint representative of the Mikado at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
Mikado Mutsu Hito >>