Midrash, § 4, end.
Hence arises Midrash, exposition, from darash to "investigate" a scriptural passage.
Of this halakhic Midrash we possess that on Exodus, called Mekhilta, that on Leviticus, called Sifra, and that on Numbers and Deuteronomy, called Sifre.
The term Midrash, however, more commonly implies agada, i.e.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
In the East, Tanhum ben Joseph of Jerusalem was the author of commentaries (not to be confounded with the Midrash Tanhuma) on many books of the Bible, and of an extensive lexicon (Kitab al-Murshid) to the Mishnah, all in Arabic.
68 a, Midrash Ekha, ii.
(1874); Wansche, Midrash on Koh.
6; Midrash Koheleth (on xi.
The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
Pp. lxxii.-cii., 104-137, who holds that the book in its present form was written by a Christian Jew in Egypt on the basis of a Hebrew Midrash on Job in the 2nd or 3rd century A.D.
Homilies, legends, traditional sayings and explanations, in fact every form of Haggadic expansion are utilized by the Targumist, so that at times his works convey the impression more of a late Midrash than of a translation.
Whether it is identical with the Midrash I of the book of Kings (2 Chron.
A distinct tendency to Midrash is found even here and there in the earlier books.
It lays down principles for the investigation of the Rabbinic exegesis (Midrash, q.v.) and of the prayer-book of the synagogue.
MIDRASH, a very common term in Jewish writings for " exposition " and a certain class of expository literature.
Jewish Midrash falls broadly into two classes: Halaka (q.v.) or Heilakd (walking, way, conduct) and Haggadah (narrative [with a purpose], homily; Aramaic equivalent Aggadah; the incorrect form Agadah rests upon a mistaken etymology).
In both classes, accepted tradition (written or oral) was reinterpreted in order to justify or to deduce new teaching (in its widest sense), to connect the present with a hallowed past, and to be a guide for the future; and the prevalence of this process, the innumerable different examples of its working, and the particular application of the term Midrash to an important section of Rabbinical literature complicates both the study of the subject and any attempt to treat it concisely.'
Both contain Halaka and Haggada, although the Mishna itself is essentially Halaka, and the Midrashim are more especially Haggadic; and consequently further information bearing upon Midrash must be sought in the art.
The Midrash of the prophet Iddo (2 Chron.
Seq., which refers to some Midrash of the Book of the Kings (xxiv.
Although it is uncertain whether this comprehensive Midrash also included the " books of the Kings " (xvi.
7, &c.), and the Midrash of Iddo and other related works, it is clear that the Book of Chronicles (q.v.) marks a very noteworthy advance upon the records in the (canonical) Book of Kings (q.v.).
The religious significance of the past is dominant, and the past is idealized from a later standpoint; and whether the narratives in Chronicles are expressly styled Midrash or not, they are the fruit of an age which sought to inculcate explicitly those lessons which, it conceived, were implied in the events of the past.
So far then, Midrash tends to include moralizing history, whether we call it narrative or romance, attached to names and events, and it is obviously exemplified whenever there are unmistakable signs of untrustworthy amplification and of some explicit religious or ethical aim colouring the narrative.
For Old Testament " Midrash " see further K.
" Midrash " which may be quite useless for historical investigation maybe appreciated for the light it throws upon forms of thought.
Historical or narrative Midrash is exemplified in the " canonical " books Daniel, Esther, Jonah and Ruth, and in the " apocryphal " stories of Daniel (viz.
" rule ") best known as the name of a now imperfect halakic Midrash on Exod.
Midrash Rabbah (or Rabboth), a large collection of very diverse origin and date, probably not completed before the 13th century.
Further, the Megillath Ta'anith (" roll of fasts "), an old source with a collection of miscellaneous legends, &c.; Megillath Antiokhos, on the martyrdom under Hadrian; Seder`Olam Rabbah, on biblical history from Adam to the rebellion of Bar Kokba (Barcocheba); the " Book of Jashar "; the Chronicle of Jerahmeel," &c. Liturgical Midrash is illustrated by the Haggada shel Pesah, part of the ritual recited at the domestic service of the first two Passover evenings.
Of collections of Midrash the chief are (a) the Yalqut Shimeoni, which arranges the material according to the text of the Old Testament (extending over the whole of it), preserves much from sources that have since disappeared, and is valuable for the criticism of the text of the Midrashim (recent ed.
(c) Midrash ha-Gadol (" the great "), an extensive thesaurus, but later (quoting from Ibn Ezra, Maimonides, &c.); the arrangement is not so careful as in (a) and (b).
What is practically Mishnic Hebrew continued to be used in Midrash for some centuries.
The language of both Talmuds, which, roughly speaking, were growing contemporaneously with Midrash, is a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic (Eastern Aram.
The Chronicler tells us that he has drawn his facts from the Midrash (commentary) of the prophet Iddo.
It is not logically distinguishable from the halakha, for the latter or forensic element makes up with the haggada the Midrash, but, being more popular than the halakha, is often itself styled the Midrash.
His editions of the Midrash are the standard texts.
Friedmann, while inspired with regard for tradition, dealt with the Rabbinic texts on modern scientific methods, and rendered conspicuous service to the critical investigation of the Midrash and to the history of early homilies.
To him were attributed the important legal homilies called Sifre and Mekhilta (see Midrash), and above all the Zohar, the Bible of the Kabbalah.
This feature recurs in later Palestinian literature (see Midrash, Talmud) where there are later forms of thought and tradition, some elements of which although often of older origin, are almost or entirely wanting in the Old Testament.
The view propounded by Clarke may have been derived from the Midrash, the Kabbalah, Philo, Henry More, or Cudworth, but not from Newton.
Ii., which has been transferred from some other place; it is in fact an anticipatory thanksgiving for the deliverance of Israel, mostly composed of phrases from other psalms. The other is that the narrative before us is not historical but an imaginative story (such as was called a Midrash) based upon Biblical data and tending to edification.
The book, which is post-exilic, may therefore be grouped with another Midrash, the Book of Ruth, which also appears to represent a current of thought opposed to the exclusive spirit of Jewish legalism.
Philo, De decent oraculis, 9, i I, and the Midrash on Ps.
The Midrash given by Neubauer has no doubts on this point, as the story is immediately followed by the remark - "Behold we learn how great is the power of alms and tithes!"
And iii.), Midrash, Targum, and for more detailed and critical treatment the references given to the Jewish Encyclopedia.
The halakoth are fuller and sometimes older than the corresponding decisions in the Mishnah, and the treatment is generally more haggadic. 1 The method of making the discussions part of an interpretation of the Old Testament (halakic Midrash), as exemplified in the Tosephta, is apparently older than the abstract and independent decisions of the Mishnah - which presuppose an acquaintance with the Pentateuchal basis - and, like the employment of narrative or historical Midrash (e.g.
Midrash, § 5, 1 -3.