The halakoth are fuller and sometimes older than the corresponding decisions in the Mishnah, and the treatment is generally more haggadic. 1 The method of making the discussions part of an interpretation of the Old Testament (halakic Midrash), as exemplified in the Tosephta, is apparently older than the abstract and independent decisions of the Mishnah - which presuppose an acquaintance with the Pentateuchal basis - and, like the employment of narrative or historical Midrash (e.g.
Midrash, § 5, 1 -3.
Midrash, § 4, end.
Hence arises Midrash, exposition, from darash to "investigate" a scriptural passage.
Of this halakhic Midrash we possess that on Exodus, called Mekhilta, that on Leviticus, called Sifra, and that on Numbers and Deuteronomy, called Sifre.
The term Midrash, however, more commonly implies agada, i.e.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
In the East, Tanhum ben Joseph of Jerusalem was the author of commentaries (not to be confounded with the Midrash Tanhuma) on many books of the Bible, and of an extensive lexicon (Kitab al-Murshid) to the Mishnah, all in Arabic.
68 a, Midrash Ekha, ii.
(1874); Wansche, Midrash on Koh.
The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.
As a teacher he was one of the first to discriminate between the various strata in rabbinic records; to him was due the revival of interest in the older Midrash and in the Palestinian Talmud, interest in which had been weak for some centuries before his time.
Pp. lxxii.-cii., 104-137, who holds that the book in its present form was written by a Christian Jew in Egypt on the basis of a Hebrew Midrash on Job in the 2nd or 3rd century A.D.
Homilies, legends, traditional sayings and explanations, in fact every form of Haggadic expansion are utilized by the Targumist, so that at times his works convey the impression more of a late Midrash than of a translation.
Whether it is identical with the Midrash I of the book of Kings (2 Chron.
A distinct tendency to Midrash is found even here and there in the earlier books.
It lays down principles for the investigation of the Rabbinic exegesis (Midrash, q.v.) and of the prayer-book of the synagogue.
MIDRASH, a very common term in Jewish writings for " exposition " and a certain class of expository literature.
Jewish Midrash falls broadly into two classes: Halaka (q.v.) or Heilakd (walking, way, conduct) and Haggadah (narrative [with a purpose], homily; Aramaic equivalent Aggadah; the incorrect form Agadah rests upon a mistaken etymology).
In both classes, accepted tradition (written or oral) was reinterpreted in order to justify or to deduce new teaching (in its widest sense), to connect the present with a hallowed past, and to be a guide for the future; and the prevalence of this process, the innumerable different examples of its working, and the particular application of the term Midrash to an important section of Rabbinical literature complicates both the study of the subject and any attempt to treat it concisely.'
Both contain Halaka and Haggada, although the Mishna itself is essentially Halaka, and the Midrashim are more especially Haggadic; and consequently further information bearing upon Midrash must be sought in the art.
The Midrash of the prophet Iddo (2 Chron.
Seq., which refers to some Midrash of the Book of the Kings (xxiv.
Although it is uncertain whether this comprehensive Midrash also included the " books of the Kings " (xvi.
7, &c.), and the Midrash of Iddo and other related works, it is clear that the Book of Chronicles (q.v.) marks a very noteworthy advance upon the records in the (canonical) Book of Kings (q.v.).
The religious significance of the past is dominant, and the past is idealized from a later standpoint; and whether the narratives in Chronicles are expressly styled Midrash or not, they are the fruit of an age which sought to inculcate explicitly those lessons which, it conceived, were implied in the events of the past.
So far then, Midrash tends to include moralizing history, whether we call it narrative or romance, attached to names and events, and it is obviously exemplified whenever there are unmistakable signs of untrustworthy amplification and of some explicit religious or ethical aim colouring the narrative.
For Old Testament " Midrash " see further K.
" Midrash " which may be quite useless for historical investigation maybe appreciated for the light it throws upon forms of thought.
Historical or narrative Midrash is exemplified in the " canonical " books Daniel, Esther, Jonah and Ruth, and in the " apocryphal " stories of Daniel (viz.
" rule ") best known as the name of a now imperfect halakic Midrash on Exod.
Polano (in the Chandos Classics); Chenery, Legends from the Midrash; I.
Rapoport, Tales and Maxims from the Midrash; E.
4 It is known that there were theological controversies between Jews and Christians, and in the Midrash Bereshith Rabbah (Midrash, § 5, 5) is a passage (translated in Jew.
Midrash, § 4.
Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (London, 1903; with W.
61i), and to the Midrash Siphre, which frequently differs from that as known to the Talmud (ib., xi.
Schiller-Szinessy, articles " Midrash," " Mishnah," and " Talmud," in Ency.
And iii.), Midrash, Targum, and for more detailed and critical treatment the references given to the Jewish Encyclopedia.
In the article Midrash it will be seen that new teaching could justify itself by a reinterpretation of the old writings, and that the traditions of former authoritative figures could become the framework of a teaching considerably later than their age.
By the help of a tradition - a " haggadic " or " halakic " Midrash (q.v.
Midrash, § 5, in this work.