MUSSELBURGH, a municipal and police burgh of Midlothian, Scotland, 52 m.
This society early began td hold a great show of live stock, implements, &c. In 1842 certain Midlothian tenant-farmers had the merit of originating an Agricultural Chemistry Association (the first of its kind), by which funds were raised for the purpose of conducting such investigations as the title of the society implies.
The 6th duke sat in the House of Commons as Conservative M.P. for Midlothian, 1853-1868 and 1874-1880; his wife, a daughter of the 1st duke of Abercorn, held the office of mistress of the robes.
EDINBURGH, a city and royal burgh, and county of itself, the capital of Scotland, and county town of Edinburghshire, or Midlothian, situated to the south of the Firth of Forth, 396 m.
In the Music Hall in George Street, Carlyle, as lord rector of the university, delivered his stimulating address on books to the students, and Gladstone addressed the electors in his Midlothian campaigns.
Facing the crags on the south-west are the spots familiar to readers of The Heart of Midlothian, where stood Jeanie Deans's cottage, and between the crags and Arthur's Seat lies Hunter's Bog, used as a shooting range.
To the south of the metropolis are Colinton (pop. 5499), on the Water of Leith, with several mansions that once belonged to famous men, such as Dreghorn Castle and Bonally Tower; and Currie (pop. 2513), which was a Roman station and near which are Curriehill Castle (held by the rebels against Queen Mary), the ruins of Lennox Tower, and Riccarton, the seat of the GibsonCraigs, one of the best-known Midlothian families.
Already in November 1879 Gladstone had conducted his Midlothian campaign.
So keenly were the Midlothian speeches appreciated by the Boers that the Boer committee wrote a letter of thanks to Gladstone, and expressed the hope that should a change in the government of Great Britain occur, " the injustice done to the Transvaal might find redress."
John Hodgson (1779-1845), the historian of Northumberland, in a short memoir published in 1831, held that he was born in 1685, at Pinkie House, in the parish of Inveresk, Midlothian, and that his father was a Northumberland Nonconformist, who had migrated to Scotland, but returned to England soon after the Revolution of 1688.
The county of Edinburgh, or Midlothian, which he contested against the dominant influence of astonishing exertions.
Gladstone was now member for Midlothian, having retired from Greenwich at the dissolution.
From 1748 until his death on the 28th of August 1805 he was minister at Inveresk in Midlothian, and during this long career rose to high eminence in his church not only as leader of the moderate or "broad" Church section, but as moderator of the General Assembly 1770 and dean of the Chapel Royal in 1789.
In addressing the electors of Midlothian in September 1885, Gladstone had suggested the severance of the Church of England from the state as a subject on which the foundation of discussion had already been laid, and he averred the existence of "a current almost throughout the civilized world, slowly setting in the direction of disestablishment."
In 1900 he was elected Liberal member for Midlothian, and in 1905 entered the Government as Comptroller of the Household and Scottish Liberal Whip. In 1909 he became UnderSecretary for India, and in 1910 parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief Liberal Whip, in which position he remained until 1 9 12.
In 1 9 06 he retired from his Midlothian seat, and till 191o represented Peebles and Selkirk.
In this year he again stood for Midlothian, holding the seat till 1912.
It will be remembered that when the laird of Dumbiedikes lay dying (Scott's Heart of Midlothian, chap. viii.) he gave his son one bit of advice which Bacon himself could not have bettered.
The chains of the Ochil, Sidlaw, Pentland, Renfrew, Campsie and Fintry Hills, and the valleys of the Strathmore, Firth of Tay, and the basin of Midlothian may be cited as examples.
The ironproducing counties in the order of their output are Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew, Linlithgow, Dumbarton, Fife, Midlothian and Stirling, the first three being the most productive.
Linlithgowshire yields nearly three-fourths of the total output, Midlothian produces nearly one-fourth, a small quantity is obtained from Lanarkshire, and there is an infinitesimal supply from Sutherland.
Fire-clay is produced in Lanarkshire, which yields nearly half of the total output, and Ayrshire and, less extensively, in Stirlingshire, Fifeshire, Renfrewshire, Midlothian and a few other shires.
With the exception of the counties of Orkney, Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland and Inverness, granite is quarried in every shire in Scotland, but the industry predominates in Aberdeenshire, and is of considerable importance in Kirkcudbrightshire; limestone is quarried in half of the counties, but especially in Midlothian and Fife; large quantities of paving-stones are exported from Caithness and Forfarshire, and there are extensive slate quarries at Ballachulish and other places in Argyllshire, which furnishes three-fourths of the total supply.
By family tradition and an idealistic outlook a Liberal, Alfred Lyttelton had always taken a great interest in politics; and he formed one of the party at Dalmeny, when his uncle Gladstone carried his Midlothian campaign to a successful issue in the general election of 1880.
After the receipt in December 1879 of the reports of Mr Gladstone's speeches during his Midlothian campaign - in which he denounced annexation as obtained by means dishonourable to Great Britain - the Boers expected nothing less than the retrocession of the country.