The old theory of paludism or of a noxious miasma exhaled from the ground is no longer necessary.
The unhealthiness of the city is chiefly due to want of proper drainage, impure drinkingwater, miasma from the disturbed rubbish heaps, and contaminated dust from the uncleansed roads and streets.
The water must in ritual washings run off in order to carry away the miasma or unseen demon of disease; and accordingly in baptism the early Christians used living or running water.
Owing to the quantity of tannin they contain, no harmful miasma exhales from the Irish bogs.
The dampness and miasma, to which so many of the early settlers' fatal "chills and fever" were due, have practically disappeared before modern methods of sanitary drainage.
Early every norning the officiating priest proceeded to the holy of holies, tfter the preliminaries of purification had cleansed him from my miasma that might interfere with the efficacy of the rites.