The Mexicans in the battles of Palo Alto (May 8th) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9th).
Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose.
Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan, and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.
Far superior were the maps found among the semi-civilized Mexicans when the Spainiards first discovered and invaded their country.
For such purposes, as also for use as mirrors, masks and labrets, it was extensively employed, under the name, of itztli, by the ancient Mexicans, who quarried it at the Cerro de las Navajas, or "Hill of Knives," near Timapan.
The Sangre del drago of the Mexicans is a resin resembling dragon's blood obtained from a euphorbiaceous tree, Croton Draco.
A third variety of jalap known as woody jalap, male jalap, or Orizaba root, or by the Mexicans as Purgo macho, is derived from Ipomaea orizabensis, a plant of Orizaba.
The Mexicans, however, are said to have assumed five ages called " suns."
Notably Martinique, Guadaloupe and Santa Lucia, where it is known as the "Fer de Lance"; Mexicans call it "rabo de hueso" or bone-tail, on account of the curiously coloured and spike-like tip of the tail.
These spines are used by the Mexicans as toothpicks.
Pectinatus produces a purplish fruit resembling a gooseberry, which is very good eating; and the fleshy part of the stem itself, which is called cabeza del viego by the Mexicans, is eaten by them as a vegetable after removing the spines.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 130,389 were natives of Tennessee, 129,945129,945 of Alabama, 90,584 of Mississippi, 77,950 of Georgia and 75,633 of Arkansas; and of the foreign-born 71,062 were Mexicans, 48,295 Germans, 9204 Bohemians, 8213 English, 6870 Austrians and 6173 natives of Ireland.
The Mexicans under Santa Anna captured the Alamo on the 6th of March 1836 and slaughtered its garrison of 183 men; on the 20th of the same month they captured Fannin and his force of 371 men, and a week later slaughtered all except twenty who escaped.
Among other institutions are the new post office, begun in 1902 and finished in 1907; the Mineria, occupied by the schools of mining and engineering; the military school, occupying a part of the castle of Chapultepec; the Iturbide palace, now occupied as a hotel; the Iturbide theatre, occupied by the chamber of deputies, for which a new legislative palace to cost 2,500,000 pesos was under construction in 1909; the new palace of justice; the old mint, dating from 1537; the new penitentiary, completed in 190o; the Panteon, with its monuments to the most celebrated Mexicans; the new general hospital; the jockey club on Plaza Guardiola, a new university (1910) and new school edifices of modern design.
The Mexicans were routed on the morning of the 10th of August after suffering heavy losses.
Worth in the early morning of the 8th of September these buildings were defended by more than io,000 Mexicans under Generals Leon, Alvarez and Perez, and they were captured only after a most desperate fight, which cost the Americans 787 killed and wounded and the Mexicans at least 2000 killed, wounded, and prisoners.
To enter the city by way of the Tacubaya causeway it was still necessary for the Americans to capture Chapultepec. This hill, defended by about 4000 Mexicans under General Nicolas Bravo, was bombarded on the 12th of September, and was carried by assault on the 13th.
The architectural Mexicans, Central Americans, and especially the Peruvians, had no derricks or other hoisting devices, but rolled great stones into place along prepared ways and up inclined planes of earth, which were afterwards removed.
At any rate stones were sawed, shaped, polished, carved and perforated, not only by the Mexicans, but among other tribes.
With the Mexicans war was a passion, but warfare was little above the raid (Bandelier; Farrand).
Nordenskjold, The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Colorado (Stockholm, 18 93); Zelia Nuttall, The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans (Univ.
Aliens are granted the civil rights enjoyed by Mexicans, but the government reserves the right to expel those guilty of pernicious conduct.
On the other hand the multitude of native American languages suggested that the migration to America took place after the building of the tower of Babel, and Siguenza arrived at the curiously definite result that the Mexicans were descended from Naphtuhim, son of Mizraim and grandson of Noah, who left Egypt for Mexico shortly after the confusion of tongues.
Even in the 10th century Lord Kingsborough spent a fortune in printing a magnificent compilation of Mexican picture-writings and documents in his Antiquities of Mexico to prove the theory advocated by Garcia a century earlier, that the Mexicans were the lost tribes of Israel.
It was not merely for conquest and tribute that the fierce Mexicans ravaged the neighbourlands, but they had a stronger motive than either in the desire to obtain multitudes of prisoners whose hearts were to be torn out by the sacrificing priests to propitiate a pantheon of gods who well personified their bloodthirsty worshippers.
The most characteristic weapon of the Mexicans was the maquahuitl or " handwood," a club set with two rows of large sharp obsidian flakes, a well-directed blow with which would cut down man or horse.
It is plain that this rotation of signs served no, useful purpose whatever, being less convenient than ordinary counting such as the Mexicans employed in their other calendar already mentioned, where the 20-day periods had each a name like our' months, and their days had signs in regular order.
It was believed that the destruction of the world, which after the Hindu manner the Mexicans held to have already taken.
The funeral rites of the Mexicans are best seen in the ceremonies at the death of a king.
The staple food of the Mexicans before the conquest has continued with comparatively little change among the native race, and has even been adopted by those of European blood.
The Mexicans understood digging channels for irrigation, especially for the cultivation of the cacahuatl, from which they taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage chocollatl; these native names passed into English as the words cacao, or coco and chocolate.
The Mexicans were also skilful makers of earthen pots, in which were cooked the native beans called by the Spanish frijoles, and the various savoury stews still in vogue.
The ballgame of the Mexicans, called tlachtli, was, like tennis, the pastime of princes and nobles; special courts were built for it, and the ball of india-rubber (perhaps the first object in which Europeans became acquainted with this valuable material) might not be touched by the hands, but was driven against the walls by blows of the knee or elbow, shoulder or buttock.
How closely related some of the Central-American nations were in institutions to the Mexicans appears, not only in their using the same peculiar weapons, but in the similarity of their religious rites; the connexion is evident in such points as the ceremony of marriage by tying together the garments of the couple, or in holding an offender's face over burning chillies as a punishment; the native legends of Central America make mention of the royal ball-play, which was the same as the Mexican game of tlachtli already mentioned.
We have the means of comparing the personal appearance of the Mexicans and Central Americans by their portraits on early sculptures, vases, &c.; and, though there does not appear any clear distinction of race-type, the extraordinary back-sloping foreheads of such figures as those of the bas-reliefs of Palenque prove that the custom of flattening the skull in infancy prevailed in Central America to an extent quite beyond any such habit in Mexico.
They also show that these various culture-periods followed one another among the Mexicans in much the same sequence as among the Peruvians.
A provisional government of Mexicans, French nominated directly or indirectly by Dubois de Expedition, Saligny, adopted monarchy, offered the crown to 1862-63.
Directly the French troops had passed, Republican bands sprang up, and the non-combatant Mexicans, to save themselves, could only profess neutrality.
The Mexicans again invaded Texas in 1842, and San Antonio was twice captured and held for short periods, first by General Vasquez and later by General Woll.
The Mexicans revolted a few months later, and the newly appointed governor, Charles Bent, and a number of American sympathizers were assassinated; but the rising was quickly suppressed.
Mexicans are exported to various markets and also used in the home trade.
Now, however, Mexicans are often made with lighter wefts, though the name is usually applied to the better class of cloths of the particular character.
On the outbreak of the Texan War of Liberation Goliad was garrisoned by a small force of Mexicans, who surrendered to the Texans in October 1835, and on the 10th of December a preliminary "declaration of independence" was published here, antedating by several months the official Declaration issued at Old Washington, Texas, on the 2nd of March 1836.
Fannin (c. 1800-1836), who was overtaken on the Coletto Creek while attempting to carry out orders to withdraw from Goliad and to unite with General Houston; he surrendered after a sharp fight (March 19-20) in which he inflicted a heavy loss on the Mexicans, and was marched back with his force to Goliad, where on the morning of the 27th of March they were shot down by Santa Anna's orders.
The axolotl has been known to the Mexicans from the remotest times, as an article of food regularly brought from neighbouring lakes to the Mexico market, its flesh being agreeable and wholesome.
There was almost no dairying; olive oil took the place of butter, and wine of milk, at the missions; and in general indeed the Mexicans were content with water.
The Franciscans had no sympathy for profane knowledge, even among the Mexicans, - sometimes publicly burning quantities of books of a scientific or miscellaneous nature; and the reading of Fenelon's Telemaque brought excommunications on a layman.
The feeling against Mexicans - those " de la otra banda " as they were significantly termed - invaded political and even social life.
There was some production of gold by the Mexicans, but the silver mining was unimportant until 1881, when the Lake Valley silver mines in Sierra county began to yield.
Of the foreign-born element 6649, or about one-half, were Mexicans, 1360 were Germans and the rest chiefly English, Irish, Canadians, Italians, Scotch and Austrians.
Wool at Chihuahua, some of the inhabitants revolted, and in January 1847 assassinated the governor, Charles Bent, and a number of Americans and Mexicans who had taken office under the new regime.
Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians,: Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Greek religion in the highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world negation, and, positively, Christianity.
Americana and other species this is used by the Mexicans to make their national beverage, pulque; the flower shoot is cut out and the sap collected and subsequently fermented.
In 1738 an extraordinary deposit of silver nuggets, quickly exhausted (1741), was discovered at Arizonac. At the end of the 18th century the Mexicans considerably developed the mines in the south-east.
Illiteracy is high, amounting in 1900 to 23.1% of native males, above 21 years of age, and 30 5% of foreign males, principally because of the large number of Indians, Chinese, Japanese and Mexicans in the state.
The Mexicans, pressed by the Apaches, had, in 1848, abandoned even Tubac and Tamacacori, first a visita of Guevavi, and after 1784 a mission.
Hostilities were then una voidable, and the first passage at arms occurred on the 24th of April 1846; when a large force of Mexicans on the east bank of the Rio Grande ambushed and captured a small party of American dragoons under Captain Seth B.
The Mexicans also practised a similar purification at the end of every fifty-two years, in the belief that it was time for the world to come to an end.
This kind of jalap, the Purga de Sierra Gorda of the Mexicans, was traced by Hanbury to I pomaea simulans.
The Texans routed the Mexicans near Gonzales on the 2nd of October.
The native population is of the most diverse origin; the foreign element is equally heterogeneous, but more than half (in 1900, 14,172 out of 24,283 foreign-born) are Mexicans, many of whom are not permanent residents; after 1900, immigrants were largely mine labourers, and included Slavonians and Italians.