Standard works on the metallurgy of gold are the treatises of T.
Hofmann, The Metallurgy of Lead (6th ed., New York, 1901); W.
Of these the more important are noticed under Metallurgy; here we may notice the rarer minerals.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
The metallurgy and uses of aluminium are treated in detail in P. Moissonnier, L' Aluminium (Paris, 1903); in J.
Its chief uses are in glass-making to promote fluidity, in metallurgy to oxidize impurities, as a constituent of gunpowder and in pyrotechny; it is also used in the manufacture of nitric acid.
Further work on cyanogen and connected substances yielded a great number of interesting derivatives, and he described an improved method for the manufacture of potassium cyanide, an agent which has since proved of enormous value in metallurgy and the arts.
The ever-increasing importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older methods.
Zinc as a component of brass (XaXKOs, 6pei-XaXKos) had currency in metallurgy long before it became known as an individual metal.
Brannt's The Metallic Alloys (2896); Roberts-Austen's Introduction to the Study of Metallurgy (2902); and R.
With regard to the history of the metallurgy of gold, it may be mentioned that, according to Pliny, mercury was employed in his time both as a means of separating the precious metals and for the purposes of gilding.
Clark, Australian Mining and Metallurgy; Karl Schmeisser, Goldfields of Australasia; A.
These Hamites brought with them a measure of Egyptian civilization, cattle, and the arts of metallurgy, pottery and other adjuncts to neolithic civilization.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.
Waldo (1905); reference may also be made to treatises on general metallurgy, e.g.
- Bessemer had no very wide knowledge of metallurgy, and after overcoming many stupendous ' The length of the blow varies very greatly, in general increasing with the proportion of silicon and with the size of charge.
After studying chemistry at Berlin and Strassburg, medicine at Halle, and mineralogy and metallurgy at Freiberg, he returned to his native city in 1735 as assistant to his father, Henning Christian Marggraf, chief apothecary at the court.
A rationalistic explanation might be found in the connexion between the chthonic serpent and subterranean sources of wealth.3 Moreover, the serpent is often associated with metallurgy, and to serpent deities have been ascribed the working of metals, gem-cutting and indeed culture in general.
The Aztec Quetzalcoatl taught metallurgy and agriculture, gave abundance of maize, also wisdom and freedom from disease.
Pachuca has some fine modern edifices, among which are the palace of justice, a scientific and literary institute, a school of mines and metallurgy, founded in 1877, a meteorological observatory and a public library.
For the dry metallurgy, see E.
Reference should also be made to the articles Metallurgy and ELECTROMetallurgy.
In 1766, tired of sea-life, he went to study chemistry at Leipzig, and afterwards devoted himself to metallurgy and assaying at his native place with such success that in 1780 he was appointed chemist to the Freiberg foundries by the elector of Saxony.
Either by the Phoenicians or by the Greeks metallurgy was taught to men who no sooner recognized the nature and malleable properties of copper than they learnt that by application of heat a substance could be manufactured with tin far better suited to their purposes.
Eissler, The Metallurgy of Silver (London, 1891); H.
Collins, The Metallurgy of Lead and Silver (London, 1900), part ii.; H.
In addition to the academic department or college proper, the university embraces special schools of pedagogics (1868), agriculture and mechanic arts (1870), mines and metallurgy (1870, at Rolla), law (1872), medicine (1873), fine arts (1878), engineering (1877), military science, commerce, a graduate school of arts and sciences (1896), and a department of journalism (1908).
Metallurgy and metal working 783,000 345,000
He accordingly commenced the study of metallurgy at Marburg; he also began to write poetry, imitating German authors, among whom he is said to have especially admired Gunther.
This Latin treatise on mining and metallurgy had remained the standard text-book for almost 200 years after its appearance; the translation, with introduction, annotations, and appendices, was a pious memorial to a pioneer contributor to the knowledge of a great profession.
Percy,Metallurgy of Silver and Gold (London, 1880), part i.; T.
Egleston, The Metallurgy of Silver, Gold and Mercury (New York, 1887-1890), part i.; M.
Hofman, Hydrometallurgy of Silver (1907); C. Schnabel, Metallurgy, translated by H.
In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of gold or silver in ores or alloys; in this article, however, it will be used in a wider technical signification, and will include a description of the methods for the quantitative determination of those elements in ores which affect their value in metallurgical operations.
The technical college is also carried on by the town council, the chief features of its curriculum being chemistry, metallurgy and engineering.
The sources of copper, its applications and its metallurgy, have undergone great changes.
The manufacturing industries (wood-products, metallurgy, machinery, textiles, paper and leather) are of modern development, but the aggregate production approaches one and a half millions sterling in value.
Buckland, Anthropological Studies (1891), pp. 104-139 (on serpents in connexion with metallurgy and precious stones).
In metallurgy he devised improved methods for the manufacture of zinc and the purification of silver, tin and other metals.
They have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering, chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy.
Fluxus, a flowing; this being also the meaning of the English term in medicine, &c.), in metallurgy, a substance introduced in the smelting of ores to promote fluidity, and to remove objectionable impurities in the form of a slag.