There are large metallurgical works with electric motive power close to the town.
Of France took the Hungarian mining system as the model for his metallurgical reforms, and Hungarian master-miners were also in great demand at the court of Ivan the Terrible.
There are a mining and a metallurgical school.
The metallurgical works of the Societe de la Franche-Comte are established in the city and there are saw-mills, printing-works, paperfactories, distilleries, and manufactories of boots and shoes, machinery, hosiery, leather, elastic fabric, confectionery and artificial silk.
When the mineral is transported by rail or water to concentration or metallurgical works for treatment, or to near or distant markets for sale, provision must be made for the economical loading of railway wagons or vessels, and for the temporary storage of the mineral product.
Cars, however, are too valuable to be used in this way for more than a few hours, and it is usual to erect large storage bins at the mine, at concentration works and metallurgical establishments, in which the mineral may be stored, permitting cars, wagons and vessels to be quickly emptied or loaded.
A student of mining must receive thorough instruction in geology; he must study mining as practised in different countries, and the metallurgical and mechanical treatment of minerals; and he should have an engineering education, especially on mechanical and electrical lines.
Dr Petrie surmounts the difficulty by saying that the process depicted is not glass-blowing, but some metallurgical process in which reeds were used tipped with lumps of clay.
For ordinary metallurgical work the electric furnace, requiring as it does (excepting where waterfalls or other cheap sources of power are available) the intervention of the boiler and steam-engine, or of the gas or oil engine, with a consequent loss of energy, has not usually proved so economical as an ordinary direct fired furnace.
The richest mining districts are those of Cadereyta and Toliman, where there are metallurgical works for the reduction of ores.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
Consequently the separation of these two metals is one of the most important metallurgical processes.
Bismuth is extracted from its ores by dry, wet, or electro-metallurgical methods, the choice depending upon the composition of the ore and economic conditions.
The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
Bourges and Vierzon are metallurgical and engineering centres.
Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes.
During his eleven years' ministry (1876-1878 with Depretis, 1884-1891 with Depretis and Crispi, 1896-1898 with Rudini), he succeeded in creating large private shipyards, engine works and metallurgical works for the production of armour, steel plates and guns.
Natural gas, as a source of light and for metallurgical purposes, became important in the mid-eighties.
The production had steadily fallen to 16,984 flasks in 1908, but in the opinion of the United States Geological Survey this reduction is mainly attributable, in recent years at least, to market conditions, and does not truly indicate the exhaustion of the mines, although the ores now available are of low grades, those of New Almaden having shown a decrease in yield from 36.7% in1850-1851to o~74% in 1895-1896, so that only the greatest metallurgical skill and business economy can sustain the mines against a weak market.
The valley of the Avon, which is only some three miles long, has been from about 1840 a place of much metallurgical activity.
The manufacture of machinery, heavy iron goods and nails, and copper and iron founding, are important industries, and there are important metallurgical and engineering works at Montataire, about 2 m.
Only the discovery of dynamo-electric machines and their application to metallurgical processes rendered it possible for E.
About 1879 dynamos began to be introduced into metallurgical practice, and from that date onwards numerous schemes for utilizing this cheaper source of energy were brought before theublic. The first electrical method worthy lectrical P y reduction.
At elevated temperatures the metal decomposes nearly all other metallic oxides, wherefore it is most serviceable as a metallurgical reagent.
Large size has here, as in most metallurgical operations, not only its usual advantage of economy of installation, labour and administration per unit of product, but the further very important one that it lessens the proportion which the outer heat-radiating and hence heatwasting surface bears to the whole.
Though all this is elementary to-day, not only was it unknown, indeed unguessed, at the time of the invention of the Bessemer process, but even when, nearly a quarter of a century later, a young English metallurgical chemist, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885), offered to the British Iron and Steel Institute a paper describing his success in dephosphoriz ing by the Bessemer process with a basic-lined converter and a basic slag, that body rejected it.
The chief industrial centres are Decazeville, which has metallurgical works, and Millau, where leather-dressing and the manufacture of gloves have attained considerable importance.
A number of foundries and metallurgical works supply material for repairs and shipbuilding.
The principle has since found wide application in metallurgical and other operations.
The university was chartered in 1866; it embraces a school of technology, with courses in civil, mechanical, metallurgical, mining, electrical and chemical engineering, electrometallurgy and chemistry, and a school of general literature (1878), with classical and Latin-scientific courses.
The principal buildings of the university are Packer Hall (1869), largely taken up by the department of civil engineering, the chemical and metallurgical laboratory, the physical and electrical engineering laboratory, the steam engineering laboratory, Williams Hall for mechanical engineering, &c., Saucon Hall for the English department, Christmas Hall, with drawing-rooms and the offices of the Y.M.C.A., the Sayre astronomical observatory, the Packer Memorial Church, the university library (1897), dormitories (1907) given by Andrew Carnegie, Drown Memorial Hall, a students' club, the college commons, and a gymnasium.
Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.
Copper is obtained from its ores by three principal methods, which may be denominated - (r) the pyro-metallurgical or dry method, (2) the hydro-metallurgical or wet method, and (3) the electro-metallurgical method.
Wet methods are only employed for low grade ores (under favourable circumstances ore containing from 4 to i% of copper has admitted of economic treatment), and for gold and silver bearing metallurgical products.
Silver and other insoluble impurities collected at the bottom of the trough up to the level of the lower side-tube, and were then run off through a plug in the bottom into settling tanks, from which they were removed for metallurgical treatment.
By ioo ft.; and whereas, in making metallic copper out of a low-grade sulphuretted ore, one day's labour used to be expended on every ton of ore treated, to-day one day's labour will carry at least four tons of ore through the different mechanical and metallurgical processes necessary to reduce them to metal.
Here, and in other cities, tanning, distilling, various metallurgical industries, and manufactures of soap, flour, tobacco, &c., are carried on; the entire output is sold in Portugal or its colonies.
The town (which is often called "the metallurgical capital of Wales") is the chief seat of the copper, spelter, tin-plate and patent fuel industries, and has within a compass of 4 m.
Fluere, "to flow," recall the fact that the spar is useful as a flux in certain metallurgical operations.
In a restricted sense the term assaying is applied in metallurgy to the determination of the amount of gold or silver in ores or alloys; in this article, however, it will be used in a wider technical signification, and will include a description of the methods for the quantitative determination of those elements in ores which affect their value in metallurgical operations.
How then are we to explain on the one hand the apparent stride made by primitive man when from a Stone Age civilization he passed to a comparatively advanced metallurgical skill?
From the metallurgical point of view, silver ores may be classified as real silver ores and argentiferous ores.
This development was due principally to the growth of the mining and metallurgical industries.
It is generally agreed, however, that the Iron Age, the period of civilization during which this metal played an all-important part, succeeded the ages of copper and bronze, notwithstanding the fact that the extraction of these metals required greater metallurgical skill.
From Bayonne, there are large metallurgical works, the Forges de l'Adour, and chemical works.
The metallurgical industries of the place are extensive, and include iron and copper founding and the manufacture of steam-engines, machinery, chain-cables and a great variety of heavy iron goods.
An electro-metallurgical process for the extraction of arsenic from its sulphides has also been proposed (German Patent, 67,973).
The paper, sugar, salt petroleum and metallurgical industries were subjected to this process, but in.
Metallurgical furnaces of the first class are termed crucible, muffle or retort furnaces, and of the second shaft and reverberatory furnaces.
In this article the general principles of metallurgical furnaces will be treated; the subject of gasand oil-heated furnaces is treated in the article Fuel, and of the electric furnace in the article Electrometallurgy.
The blast furnace in its simplest form is among the oldest, if not the oldest, of metallurgical contrivances.
Hearth furnaces are employed in certain metallurgical operations, e.g.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
The opening of the railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding new quays, docks and other harbour works.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
The east moors, stretching towards the outlet of the Rhymney river, have become an important metallurgical quarter.
In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry, or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school.
The extraction of the metal from pure (or nearly pure) galena is the simplest of all metallurgical operations.
Calcium carbide and phosphorus manufacture) they are not truly metallurgical in character.