Riley (1904) the epicranium cord; M, mesodermal pouches.
This latter, as well as the heart and the walls of the blood spaces, arises by the modification of mesodermal cells, and the body cavity is formed by the enlargement and coalescence of the blood channels and by the splitting of the fat body.
The paired oviducts and vasa deferentia are, as we have seen, mesodermal in origin.
Palmen (1884) on these ducts have shown that in may-flies and in female earwigs the paired mesodermal ducts open directly to the exterior, while in male earwigs there is a single mesodermal duct, due either to the coalescence of the two or to the suppression of one.
The imaginal disks for the outer wall of the body, some of them, at any rate, include mesodermal rudiments (from which the muscles are developed) as well as hypodermis.
The liver cells, therefore, are entodermal, but the supporting connective tissue mesodermal from the septum transversum.
The May-flies are remarkably primitive in certain of their characters, notably the elongate cerci, the paired, entirely mesodermal genital ducts, and the occurrence of an ecdysis after the acquisition of functional wings.
I) being folded beneath these both longitudinally and transversely so that nearly the whole abdomen is left uncovered; and by the entirely mesodermal nature of the genital ducts, which, according to the observations of F.
Thus the condition in the Dermaptera is more primitive than in any other Pterygote order except the Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) which are still more generalized, the primitive mesodermal ducts (oviducts and vasa deferentia) opening by paired apertures as in the Crustacea.
In some cases they consist of masses of mesodermal cells, within which the excretory products appear to be stored up instead of being expelled from the body.
Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.