The Mercians, however, recovered their independence in 658, and from this time onward Northumbria played little part in the history of southern England.
AETHELFLAED (Ethelfleda), the "Lady of the Mercians," the eldest child of Alfred the Great, was educated with her brother Edward at her father's court.
Then the Mercians made peace with them.
According to Bede, Wini, being expelled from his bishopric of Wessex in 635, took refuge with Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, of whom he purchased the see of London.
It was burned by the Danes and restored in 913 by Aethelflead, lady of the Mercians, who built the fort which was the origin of the later castle.
There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
The result was that in the year 957 his brother, the ZEtheling Edgar, was chosen as king by the Mercians and Northumbrians.
About 885 IEthelfla d, lady of the Mercians, with the consent of Ã†thelred her husband, gave Hadleigh to Christ Church, Canterbury.
But in 957 the Mercians and Northumbrians revolted and chose Edgar as their king.
In the year of his succession a large Danish force landed in East Anglia, and in the year 868 !Ethelred and his brother Alfred went to help Burgred, or Burhred, of Mercia, against this host, but the Mercians soon made peace with their foes.
In support of this explanation it is urged that the title is given in the Chronicle to Ecgbert in the year in which he "conquered the kingdom of the Mercians and all that was south of the Humber."
If this monastery was ever built, it was afterwards annexed to the church of Worcester, and the lands on the Stour formed part of the gift of Coenwulf, king of the Mercians, to Deneberht, bishop of Worcester, but were exchanged with the same king in 816 for other property.
In 661 he was again attacked by the Mercians under Wulfhere.
Shortly afterwards the kingdom of the Mercians came to an end and their leading earl Ethelred accepted Alfred's overlordship. By 886 Alfred's authority was admitted in all the provinces of England which were not under Danish rule.
After 915 B, C insert as a separate document a short register of Mercian affairs during the same period (902-924), which might be called the acts of Ã†thelflaed, the famous "Lady of the Mercians," while D has incorporated it, not very skilfully, with the official continuation.
The early history of Bridgnorth is connected with IEthelfleda, lady of the Mercians, who raised a mound there in 912 as part of her offensive policy against the Danes of the five boroughs.
Leeds (Loidis, Ledes) is mentioned by Bede as the district where the Northumbrian kings had a royal vill in 627, and where Oswy, king of Northumbria, defeated Penda, king of the Mercians, in 665.
It is clear that, unlike their king, the Mercians had no profound enthusiasm for the old gods.
The Mercians gladly mingled with the West Saxons, and abandoned all memories of ancient independence.
After their first fury was spent they no longer exterminated the conquered, but had been content to make the Mercians and Deirans their subjects, to take the best of the land, and exact tribute for the rest.
It is notable that when, after Edreds death, there was civil strife, owing to the quarrel of his nephew Edwy with some of his kinsmen, ministers and bishops, the rebels, who included the majority of the Mercians and Northumbrians, set up as their pretender to the throne not a Dane but Edwys younger brother Edgar, who ruled for a short time north of Thames, and became sole monarch on the death of his unfortunate kinsman.
Edwin and Morcar, who should have been at his side with their Mercians and Northumbrians, were still far awayprobably from treachery, slackness and jealousy.
During the early part of Oswio's reign the Northumbrian kingdom was repeatedly invaded and ravaged by the Mercians, and on one occasion (before 651) Penda besieged and almost captured the Northumbrian royal castle at Bamborough.
Shortly afterwards Peada was murdered; but in 658 the Mercians rose under his younger brother Wulfhere and threw off the Northumbrian supremacy.
No battle took place, and the Mercians subsequently made peace with the Danes.
From this time onwards its existence as a separate kingdom was at an end, though during the last years of Eadwig's reign the Mercians and Northumbrians set up Eadgar as king.