After Oswio's victory over Penda in 654-655 he annexed the northern part of Mercia to his kingdom and acquired a supremacy over the rest of England similar to that held by his predecessors.
LEthelbald of Mercia seems to have taken advantage of this campaign to ravage Northumbria.
Of Penda, king of Mercia, while another daughter, Osthryth, became the wife of Ã†thelred, third son of the same king.
In 1002 Wulfric, earl of Mercia, founded here a Benedictine abbey, and by charter of 1004 granted to it the town with other large endowments.
BURGRED, king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 852, and in 852 or 853 called upon ZEthelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh.
The armies of Wessex and Mercia did no serious fighting, and the Danes were allowed to remain through the winter.
796), king of Mercia, obtained that kingdom in A.D.
It is customary to ascribe to Offa a policy of limited scope, namely the establishment of Mercia in a position equal to that of Wessex and of Northumbria.
Shortly afterwards both brothers were slain by Penda of Mercia in his invasion of East Anglia, and Anna became king.
In 654 Anna was slain by Penda of Mercia, and was succeeded by his brother 2Ethelhere, who was killed in 655 at the Winwaed, fighting for the Mercian king against Oswio of Northumbria.
In 673 Archbishop Theodore divided the East Anglian diocese into two, Elmham being the seat of the northern, Dunwich that of the southern bishop. A long blank follows in the history of this kingdom, until in 792 we find Offa of Mercia slaying iEthelberht, king of East Anglia, who is said to have been his son-in-law.
East Anglia was subject to the supremacy of the Mercian kings until 825, when its people slew Beornwulf of Mercia, and with their king acknowledged Ecgberht (Egbert) of Wessex as their lord.
Cynegils' next struggle was with Penda of Mercia, and here again he was worsted, the battle being fought in 628 at Cirencester, and was probably compelled to surrender part of his kingdom to Mercia.
886), she was married to 'Ethelred, earl of Mercia, to whom Alfred entrusted the control of Mercia.
For some eighteen months Ã†lfwyn seems to have wielded her mother's authority, and then, just before the Christmas of 919, Edward took Mercia into his own hands, and Ã†lfwyn was "led away" into Wessex.
Later the district formed the northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian witenagemot assembled at Repton.
In Anglo-Saxon England in the 7th and 8th centuries it seems certain that each of the larger kingdoms, Kent, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, had its separate witan, or council, but there is a difference of opinion as to whether this was identical with, or distinct from, the folkmoot, in which, theoretically at least, all freemen had the right to appear.
Together Canute and Edric harried Mercia, and were preparing to reduce London, when Ethelred died there on the 23rd of April 1016.
Edwy, to judge from the disproportionately large numbers of charters issued during his reign, seems to have been weakly lavish in the granting of privileges, and soon the chief men of Mercia and Northumbria were disgusted by his partiality for Wessex.
It is probable that no actual conflict took place, and in 959, on Edwy's death, Edgar acceded peaceably to the combined kingdoms of Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria.
Swithhelm's successors Sigehere and Sebbe were dependent on Wulfhere, the powerful king of Mercia, who on the apostasy of Sigehere sent Bishop Jaruman to restore the faith.
As the laws of Ine of Wessex speak of Erconwald as "my bishop," it is possible that the influence of Wessex for a short time prevailed in Essex; but a subsequent charter of Swefred is approved by Coenred of Mercia, and Offa, the son of Sigehere, accompanied the same king to Rome in 709.
In 743 or 745 lEthelbald of Mercia is found granting privileges at the port of London, and perhaps the western portion of the kingdom had already been annexed, for henceforward London is frequently the meeting-place of the Mercian council.
At Bury Bank, on the hills to the north, an earthwork is traditionally considered to be the site of the capital of the Kingdom of Mercia; there are other works in the neighbourhood at Saxon Low.
In 779 Offa of Mercia defeated him and took Bensington.
15) states that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex were sprung from the Saxons, and those of Kent and southern Hampshire from the Jutes.
Is the so-called Vespasian Psalter, which was written in Mercia in the first half of the 9th century.
AETHELRED, king of Mercia, succeeded his brother Wulfhere in A.D.
In a battle on the banks of the Trent in 679, the king of Mercia was victorious and regained the province.
In the year of his succession a large Danish force landed in East Anglia, and in the year 868 !Ethelred and his brother Alfred went to help Burgred, or Burhred, of Mercia, against this host, but the Mercians soon made peace with their foes.
The upper basin of the Trent formed the nucleus of the kingdom of Mercia (q.v.), while farther down the east coast was the kingdom of East Anglia.
In addition to slaves, who in early times seem to have been numerous, we find in Wessex and apparently also in Mercia three classes, described as twelfhynde, sixhynde and twihynde from the amount of their wergilds, viz.
The sheep was valued at a shilling in both Wessex and Mercia, from early times till the i ith century.
Previous to the Conquest, Macclesfield (Makesfeld, Mackerfeld, Macclesfeld, Meulefeld, Maxfield) was held by Edwin, earl of Mercia; and at the time of the Domesday Survey it formed a part of the lands of the earl of Chester.
Merewald, king of Mercia, is said to have founded a religious house in Leominster (Llanlieni, Leofminstre, Lempster) in 660, and a nunnery existed here until the Conquest, when the place became a royal demesne.
For three years (665-668) he ruled his monastery at Ripon in peace, though acting as bishop in Mercia and Kent during vacancies in sees there.
When released he wandered first to Mercia, then to Wessex and finally to Sussex.
Not long after he died at Oundle in Northamptonshire as he was going on a visit to Ceolred, king of Mercia (709).
It was first used during the 16th century because of the belief held by Camden and other older historians, that during this period there were exactly seven kingdoms in England, these being Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.
The story is that she was the beautiful wife of Leofric, earl of Mercia and lord of Coventry.
The same year the two brothers made an unsuccessful attempt to relieve Mercia from the pressure of the Danes.
By the next year (879) not only Wessex, but Mercia, west of Watling Street, was cleared of the invader.
But they were met by a large force under the three great ealdormen of Mercia, Wilts and Somerset, and forced to head off to the north-west, being finally overtaken and blockaded at Buttington, which some identify with Buttington Tump at the mouth of the Wye, others with Buttington near Welshpool.
In the parts of Mercia acquired by Alfred, the shire system seems now to have been introduced for the first time.
Comparatively early in his reign the South Welsh princes, owing to the pressure on them of North Wales and Mercia, commended themselves to Alfred.
There can be little doubt that the story told there of the reconquest of Northern Mercia by Edmund refers to the compact with Anlaf, made as a result of the campaign, and it is probable that Simeon's statement is a wide exaggeration, due in part at least to a confused reminiscence of the earlier pact between Alfred and Guthrum.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
In England under Edward the Elder and Aethelflaed, Mercia recovered a great portion of what had been ceded to the Danes.
According to Bede, dEthelwald, king of Sussex, had been previously baptized in Mercia at the suggestion of Wulfhere, who presented him with the Isle of Wight and the district about the Meon.
The district remained in possession of the rulers of Mercia until the fall of that kingdom.
Together with the rest of English Mercia it submitted to King Alfred about 877-883 under Earl !Ethelred, who possibly himself belonged to the Hwicce.
It is probable that down to the end of the 7th century, if not still later, the court poets of Northumbria and Mercia continued to celebrate the deeds of Beowulf and of many another hero of ancient days.
He was now the first man in the kingdom, though his power was still balanced by that of the other great earls, Leofric of Mercia and Siward of Northumberland.
The 8th century saw a further curtailment of the Welsh territories under Offa, king of Mercia, who annexed Shrewsbury (Amwythig) and Hereford (Henfordd) with their surrounding districts, and constructed the artificial boundary known as Offa's Dyke running due N.
With the advent of the Normans, William the Conqueror, with the object of placing a firm feudal barrier between Wales and the earldom of Mercia, erected three palatine counties along the Cymric frontier.
There are also indications that in the ancient kingdom of Mercia the tithing was originally a district and not a mere association of persons; but in Northumbria it is doubtful whether the system of frankpledge and tithing, either personal or territorial, was ever established.
In 715 he fought a battle with Ceolred, king of Mercia, at Woodborough in Wiltshire, but the result is not recorded.
It formed part of the boundary between the kingdoms of East Anglia and Mercia, but is doubtless of much earlier origin.
Berhtwald the thane, in 788, and lEthelwulf of Mercia, in 857, affixed their seals to certain documents.
The fashion even spread to Britain, as is proved by the existence in the British Museum of a leaden bulla of Ceenwulf of Mercia, A.D.
821), king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 796, on the death of Ecgfrith, son of Offa.
In 853 AEthelwulf subdued the North Welsh, in answer to the appeal of Burgred of Mercia, and gave him his daughter AEthelswith in marriage.