Des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
Mephistopheles (1900); Philosophia militans (1900, 1901); Parteipolitik u.
MEPHISTOPHELES,' in the Faust legend, the name of the evil spirit in return for whose assistance Faust signs away his soul.
The origin of the conception and name of Mephistopheles has been the subject of much learned debate.
The origin of the idea of Mephistopheles in Faust's mind is thus clear.
Mephistopheles, then (or rather Mephostophiles, as the Faust-books spell the name) is "he who does not love light" (Gr.
The form Mephistopheles adopted by Goethe first appears in the version des Christlich Meinenden, c. 1712.
To Schroer this derivation seems improbable, and he appears to prefer that from Hebrew Mephiz, destroyer, To Faust himself, somnambulist and medium, Mephistopheles had - according to Kiesewetter - a real existence: he was "the objectivation of the transcendental subject of Faust," an experience familiar in dreams and, more especially, in the visions of mediums and clairvoyants.
It is suggested, then, in the light of modern psychical research, that Mephistopheles, though (as the Faust-books record) invisible to any one else, was visible enough to Faust himself and to Wagner, the famulus who shared his somnambulistic experiences.
Goethe's Mephistopheles is altogether another conception.
In the second part it is virtually a new Faust who, at the hands of a new Mephistopheles, goes out into a world that is not ours.
Mephistopheles (1900), three studies in pessimism; T.