This was where man had made his first medicines - not from dried herbs on a store shelf, but from the forest itself.
In the modern signification it is applied to the act of preparing, preserving and compounding medicines, according to the prescriptions of physicians.
The establishments for dispensing medicines at Cordova, Toledo and other large towns under Arab rule, were placed under severe legal restrictions.
At the same time it was enacted that no grocer should keep an apothecary's shop, and that no surgeon should sell medicines, and that the physicians should have the power to search the shops of the apothecaries within 7 m.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
In 1748 the Apothecaries' Corporation obtained a charter empowering them to license apothecaries to sell medicines in London, or within 7 m., and intended to use it to restrain chemists and druggists from practising pharmacy, and to prohibit physicians and surgeons from selling the medicines they prescribed; but the apothecaries, by paying increased attention to medical and surgical practice, had not only alienated the physicians and surgeons, but materially strengthened the position of chemists and druggists as dispensers of prescriptions.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
The Pharmaceutical Society on the other hand has also published a Pharmaceutical Journal Formulary, including several hundred formulae of proprietary medicines sold by pharmacists, so that it is now possible for any medical man to ascertain what they contain.
The government accepts all the therein published formulae as " known, admitted and approved " remedies, and therefore not requiring a patent medicine stamp. In this way widely advertised secret remedies can be replaced by medicines of known composition and accepted value in any part of the world.
The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Several of the citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the scale preparations of iron.
More than one-fourth of the value of its manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements.
Among the products are cotton goods (the product value of which in 1905 was 1 4% of the total value of the city's manufactures), foundry and machine-shop products, lumber, patent medicines, confectionery, men's clothing, mattresses, spring-beds and other furniture.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
From it the native draws lumber for his hut, utensils for his kitchen, thatch for his roof, medicines, preserved delicacies, and a long list of other articles.
Saffron was used as an ingredient in many of the complicated medicines of early times.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
Medicines were regarded as of secondary importance, but not neglected, two hundred and sixty-five drugs being mentioned at different places in the Hippocratic works.
In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations.
Many of the symptoms of diseases were caused by the passions and perturbations of the archeus, and medicines acted by modifying the ideas of the same archeus.
The principle which mainly distinguished it was not merely the use of chemical medicines in addition to the traditional, or, as they were called in distinction, "Galenical" remedies, but a theory of pathology or causation of disease entirely different from the prevailing "humoral" pathology.
He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.
He was among the first to investigate the action of medicines on healthy persons.
In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine.
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
The action of lithontriptic medicines,, especially lime-water, was one of the questions of the day, and through his investigations of this subject Black was led to the chemical discoveries associated with his name.
Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.
He largely employed powerful medicines and blood-letting both ordinary and by cupping.
O% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).
Among the other important manufacturing industries of the state and the value of their products in 1905 are: men's clothing, $2,961,581; patent medicines, $2,680,610; cotton-seed oil and oil cake, $3,743,927 tobacco, $404,241; artificial ice, $727,263; agricultural implements, $768,895; and coke, $809,801.
Binz, for instance, defines it as treating of the origin, nature, chemical and physical qualities, physiological actions, and therapeutical uses of drugs; in France and in Italy it is restricted to the mere description of medicines and their preparations, the action and uses of which as remedies are included in the term therapeutics.
The introduction into practical use of many medicines, such as paraldehyde, phenazone and strophanthus, has followed the study of their actions on animals, and this tends to be more and more the case.
In works such as Pareira's Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics (1842), the physiological effects of medicines are usually described, but very briefly as compared with the materia medica.
Everything else - clothing, books, furniture, medicines - must be defrayed at the private charges of each member.
Other important manufactures with the product-value of each in 1905 were malt liquors ($1,185,525), foundry and machine shop products ($2,820,697), structural iron-work ($1,991,771), steam railway car construction and repairing ($2,027,248), patent medicines ($1,715,889), furniture ($1,238,324), cooperage ($1,415,360), and hosiery and knit goods ($957455) The total value of the factory product was $94,407,774 in 1900, and $121,593,120 in 1905, an increase of 28.8%; in 1905 the value of the factory product was 39.5% of that of the entire state.
Add to this that Louis XIII., like Richelieu himself, had wretched health, aggravated by the extravagant medicines of the day; and it is easy to understand how this pliable disposition which offered itself to the yoke caused Richelieu always to fear that his king might change his master, and to declare that the four square feet of the kings cabinet had been more difficult for him to conquer than all the battlefields of Europe.
In the milder varieties of this complaint, such as those occurring sporadically, and where the symptoms are probably due to matters in the bowels setting up the dysenteric irritation, the employment of diaphoretic medicines is to be recommended, and the administration of such a laxative as castor oil, to which a small quantity of laudanum has been added, will often, by removing the source of the mischief, arrest the attack; but a method of treatment more to be recommended is the use of salines in large doses, such as one drachm of sodium sulphate from four to eight times a day.
By such regime and medicines life may sometimes be prolonged for many years.
The medicines above mentioned may be taken either in a moderate dose at bedtime or in the form of a dinner pill, or they may be taken in small doses three times a day just before or after meals.
For on the one hand knowledge of the fact that nitrite of amyl lessens blood pressure has led to the successful employment of other nitrites and bodies having a similar action, and on the other the knowledge that increased blood pressure tends to cause anginal pain leads to the prohibition of any strain, any food, any exposure to cold, and also of any medicines which would unduly raise the blood pressure.