The awards here summarized are quite distinct from those of silver medals which are given by the society in the case of articles possessing sufficient merit, which are entered as " new implements for agricultural or estate purposes."
Medals were authorized by Congress, and in the following year Dr Kane received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and, two years later, a gold medal from the Paris Geographical Society.
He was knighted in 1897, and received the Royal (1875), Davy (1888), and Copley (1904) medals of the Royal Society, besides filling the offices of president of the Chemical Society and of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.
They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1840, and in 1892 was awarded one of the royal medals for his work on photometry and stellar parallax.
In reward for these services Belisarius was invested with the consular dignity, and medals were struck in his honour.
He is credited with a share in the production of the magnificent series of medals that commemorate the principal events of the age of Louis XIV.
In the same year he wrote a poem on Fontenoy, he received medals from the pope and dedicated Mahomet to him, a.nd he wrote court divertissements and other things to admiration.
It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.
It was during the delivery of one of his Advent sermons that he beheld the celebrated vision, recorded in contemporary medals and engravings, that is almost a symbol of his doctrines.
Spears, battle-axes, collars, rings, amulets, medals of gold, ornaments of silver, jet and amber, &c., have also been found in various places.
Dr Samuel Jebb started Bibliotheca literaria (1722-1724), to appear every two months, which dealt with medals and antiquities as well as with literature, but only ten numbers appeared.
"Medals, and pictures, and antiquities," he writes to Furly, "are our chief entertainments here."
Dates expressed according to this era occur only on a few medals, and in the acts of certain councils.
Many of the medals struck by the city of Antioch in honour of Augustus are dated according to this era.
One blow was usually insufficient, and the method was similar to that still used in striking medals in high relief, except that the blank is now allowed to cool before being struck.
He founded two gold medals for the encouragement of scientific research, one in the award of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the other in that of the Scottish Society of Arts.
The distribution of medals to the soldiers and the institution of the Victoria Cross (February 1857) as a reward for individual instances of merit and valour must also be noted among the incidents which occupied the queen's time and thoughts.
Congress, in a joint resolution, tendered its thanks to Commodore Dewey, and to the officers and men under his command, and authorized "the secretary of the navy to present a sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and cause to be struck bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic squadron of the United States."
He was particularly famed for his dies for medals; he rose to be mint-master at Bologna, and retained that office till the end of his life.
In coins the " milling is the serrated edge, called " crenneling " by John Evelyn (Discourse on Medals, 1697, p. 225), which is formed on them to prevent clipping and filing.
Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.
He was the recipient of many British and foreign awards and honours, amongst these being the Royal and Hughes medals of the Royal Society in 1894 and 1902 respectively, the Hodgkins medal of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington in 1902, the Nobel Prize for physics in 1906, enrolment as honorary graduate of many universities, and as honorary fellow of numerous American and continental scientific academies.
In 1852 he became an assistant in the British Museum, and was assigned to the department of coins and medals, of which in 1870 he became keeper.
His description of some medals struck by the Samanid and Bouid princes (1804) was composed in Arabic because he had no Latin types.
Not only were cities called after him, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire, but he was raised to the rank of the gods, temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name.
On his death on the i ith of January 1753 he bequeathed his books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, pictures, medals, coins, seals, cameos and other curiosities to the nation, on condition that parliament should pay to his executors £20,000, which was a good deal less than the value of the collection.
Amenophis caused a series of large scarabs unique in their kind to be engraved with the name and parentage of his queen Taia, followed by varying texts commemorating like medals the boundaries of his kingdom, his secondary marriage with Gilukhipa, daughter of the king of Mitanni.
Adrien's son, CHARLES DE VALOIS (1671-1747), was a distinguished numismatist, and formed a fine collection of medals, chiefly Roman.
The Royal Society awarded her one of its Royal medals in 1906.
Into his services he introduced many peculiar alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun rising to the meridian, with the motto Ad summa, and the words Inveniam viam aut faciam below.
Artists of renown perpetuated her features on canvas, on marble and on many exquisite medals, one of which has a closed book graven on the reverse, with the inscription " Elegiae " in allusion to poems she was said to have written.
Other fruits are raised with much success, and in 1904 at St Louis the horticultural exhibit of the state led those of all other states in the medals received for excellence; but nevertheless its relative rank in the Union as a fruit-producing state is still low.
All this time he was no mere book-worm or recluse, but was haunting the salons of Mlle de Scudery and the studios of painters; nor did his scientific researches interfere with his classical studies, for during this time he was discussing with Bochart the origin of certain medals, and was learning Syriac and Arabic under the Jesuit Parvilliers.
He won the Royal Academy's silver (1772) and gold (1776) medals, and a travelling studentship, and went to Italy to study (1777-1780).
This divergence of opinion destroyed all the elation that Burke might well have felt at his compliments from kings, his gold medals, his twelve editions.
The royal library (1798) contains upwards of 500,000 volumes, including some early illuminated MSS., a valuable collection of coins and medals and some fine antique gems. In addition to the royal palace already mentioned, there are the palaces of the queen-dowager, of the prince of Orange (founded about 1720 by Count Unico of Wassenaar Twiekels) and of the prince von Wied, dating from 1825, and containing some good early Dutch and Flemish masters.
How many more such honours he might have attained it is impossible to say; but he was expected to win both the gold medals at the degree examination, had his career as a student not been cut short by an unprecedented event.
The Russian Geographical Society presented him with the great Constantine medal, and from all parts of Europe he received medals and honorary diplomas.
In the middle of the Dam stands a monument to those who fell in the Belgian revolution of 1830-1831, and called the Metal Cross after the war medals struck at that time.
He published an Essay on Medals in 1784, and in 1785, under the pseudonym of "Robert Heron," his bold but eccentric Letters of Literature depreciating the classical authors of Greece and Rome.
Cassini (1625-1712) from Italy to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, of Architecture and of Music, the French Academy at Rome, and Academies at Arles, Soissons, Nimes and many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of Painting and Sculpture which Richelieu had established.