The measurements are doubtful, but the upward tendency is clear.
Delambre gives 3 the following comparison between the results of Gascoigne's measurements of the sun's semi-diameter and the computed results from modern determinations: Gascoigne.
Other elements of the problem there are none, except mere numbers and angles, which do not depend upon the fundamental measurements of space, time and mass.
Flamsteed, in the first volume of the Historia coelestis, has inserted a series of measurements made by Gascoigne extending from 1638 to 1643.
(1773), p. 190) also gives results of measurements by Gascoigne of the diameters of the moon, Jupiter, Mars and Venus with his micrometer.
5 represents the instrument with which a half of the astronomical measurements of the 19th century were made.
Swan's measurements, which had misled Bent into accepting a chronology based on a supposed orientation of the "temple," had been shown to be inexact.
He found the light of the sun to be 300 times more intense than that of the moon, and thus made some of the earliest measurements in photometry.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
The conductivity measurements of G.
Long; the measurements in both methods are referred to the central line of the track.
Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.
The notation which Julius Thomsen employed to express his thermochemical measurements is still extensively used, and is as follows: - The chemical symbols of the reacting substances are written in juxtaposition and separated by commas; the whole is then enclosed in brackets and connected by the sign of equality to the number expressing the thermal effect of the action.
But beyond the eastern shores of the Caspian no system of direct geodetic measurements by first-class triangulation has been possible, and the surveys of Asiatic Russia are separated from those of Europe by the width of that inland sea.
Halifax not only took measurements, but copied 18 Greek and 4 Palmyrene texts.
In this table measurements of price movements stated both absolutely and as percentages of price levels are given, because authorities have expressed doubts as to whether the former or the latter might be expected to remain constant, other things being equal, when price rose.
The sole piece of evidence, from which probable conclusions may be drawn, is that three separate measurements of price fluctuations over some forty years reveal a growing unsteadiness of late, whether they be expressed absolutely or as percentages of price.
The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
The peristyle, if we compare the measurements of the stylobate with those of the drums built into the wall of the Acropolis, may be concluded to have consisted of six Doric columns at the ends and twelve at the sides.
With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.
The researches of Julius Thomsen and others have shown that in many cases definite conclusions regarding constitution can be drawn from quantitative measurements of the heats of combustion; and in this article a summary of the chief results will be given.
Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.
The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking of the paper in the process of printing.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.
Space runners for facilitating these measurements, variously known as chartometers, curvimeters, opisometers, &c., have been devised in great variety.
An interesting question arises as to the accuracy of the different measurements given by Pliny.
It has, however, been observed that in practice the width of extant rolls does not tally in any satisfactory degree with Pliny's measurements; and a more plausible explanation has been offered (Birt, Antik.
The heading "Measurement of Dynamical Quantities" includes the topics units, measurements, and the constant of gravitation.
Van Hoff pointed out that measurements of osmotic pressure confirmed this value in the case of dilute solutions of cane sugar.
At present, measurements of freezing point are more convenient and accurate than those of osmotic pressure, and we may test the validity of Arrhenius' relations by their means.
The measurements of freezing points of solutions at the extreme dilution necessary to secure complete ionization is a matter of great difficulty, and has been overcome only in a research initiated by E.
It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
It must be remembered that, the so utions not being of quite the same strength, these numbers are not strictly comparable, and that the experimental difficulties involved in the chemical measurements are considerable.
By measurements giving the position of Mars among Planetary the neighbouring stars in the morning and evening, Parallaxes.
DW F - d -v 1+ a 7rK dx dH (38) (34) [[[Magnetic Measurements]] If Ho is constant, the force will be zero; if Ho is variable, the sphere will tend to move in the direction in which Ho varies most rapidly.
Magnetic Measurements Magnetic Moment.
The magnetometric method, except when employed in connexion with ellipsoids, for which the demagnetizing factors are [[[Magnetic Measurements]] accurately known, is generally less satisfactory for the exact determination of induction or magnetization than the ballistic method.
[[[Magnetic Measurements]] introduced the method of measuring hysteresis by means of an electro-dynamometer used ballistically.
[[[Magnetic Measurements]] that could be produced by any magnetizing force, however great.
In all such measurements a correction should be made in respect of the demagnetizing force due to the joint, and unless the fit is very accurate the demagnetizing action will be variable.
In most of the experiments the measurements were made by suddenly withdrawing the bobbin from its place ron FIG.
In the second series, to which greater importance is attached, measurements were made of the force exerted in a divergent field upon small balls of copper, silver and other substances, first when the balls were in air and afterwards when they were immersed in liquid oxygen.
By all observers in magnetic observatories, who are every day making measurements of magnetic quantities, and who obtain results which would be inconsistent with each other if the law of force had been erroneously assumed.
(other measurements give 9823 ft.), probably the highest summit in Brazil.
Archimedes concluded from his measurements that the sun's diameter was greater than 27' and less than 32'; and even Tycho Brahe was so misled by his measures of the apparent diameters of the sun and moon as to conclude that a total eclipse of the sun was impossible.'
It was used by him in his earliest observations of double stars (1779-1783); but, even in his hands, the measurements were comparatively crude, because of the difficulties he had to encounter from the want of a parallactic mounting.
Table of Measurements of the Temples (in feet).
In view of the not very great accuracy of thermochemical measurements, the precise definition of the heat-unit employed is not a matter of special importance.
Iwanzov  has brought forward strong grounds for the latter view, pointing out that the cnidoblast has no contractile mechanism and that measurements show discharged capsules to be on the average slightly larger than undischarged ones.
Formalized agreements on conventions, measurements, borders, and international conduct.
The thermal G G detectors are especially useful for the purpose of quantitative measurements, because they indicate the true effective or square root of mean square value of the current or train of oscillations passing through the hot wire.
Given certain linear and angular measurements, the area must be so and so.
GNP and "standard of living" measurements don't capture this.