In 1646 she accompanied her husband to Minster, where he was sent by Mazarin as chief envoy, and where she charmed the German diplomatists who were making the treaty of Westphalia, and was addressed as the "goddess of peace and concord."
The duke of Sully carried out a revision in 1604, and other attempts were made by Mazarin and Colbert, but the extravagarces of Louis XV.
In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology.
Are: - (1) The extensive work on the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Cornmunibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS.
Marca now interested himself in the fortunes of Mazarin, and remained faithful to him even during the xvn.
A special envoy, sent by Louis XIV., to make inquiries and demand reparation, was treated with studied insult; and the result was that Mazarin abandoned the Turkish alliance and threw the power of France on to the side of Venice, openly assisting the Venetians in the defence of Crete.
Servien lived at Angers or on his estates at Sable until the death of Louis when Mazarin entrusted him with the conduct, conjointly with the comte d'Avaux, of French diplomatic affairs in Germany.
He received the title of minister of state on his return to France in April 1649, remained loyal to Mazarin during the Fronde, and was made superintendent of finances in 1653.
He was an adviser to Mazarin in the negotiations which terminated in the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) He amassed a considerable fortune, and was unpopular, even in court circles.
Mazarin, in spite of all disadvantages, triumphed alike over his domestic and his foreign opponents.
The peace of the Pyrenees was a decisive event in his personal history as well as in that of France, for one of its most important stipulations referred to his marriage, He had already been strongly attracted to one of the nieces of Mazarin, but reasons of state triumphed over personal impulse; and it was agreed that the new friendship with Spain should be cemented by the marriage of Louis to his cousin, the Infanta Maria Theresa.
Mazarin died in the next year; but so strong was the feeling that the kings of France could only rule through a first minister that it was generally expected that Mazarin would soon have a successor.
Capefigue, Richelieu, Mazarin et la Fronde (1835-1836); and Dr J.
Bridges, Richelieu, Mazarin and Colbert (1866).
After the death of Richelieu, he attached himself to Mazarin, whom he served faithfully throughout the Fronde.
The earliest is the Mentz edition of 1452-1456 (the Mazarin or " 42-line;' Bible), but the earliest of a critical nature were those of Robert Etienne in 1528 and 1538-1540.
The Society also gained ground steadily in France; for, though held in check by Richelieu and little more favoured by Mazarin, yet from the moment that Louis XIV.
JULES MAZARIN (1602-1661), French cardinal and statesman, elder son of a Sicilian, Pietro Mazarini, the intendant of the household of Philip Colonna, and of his wife Ortensia Buffalini, a connexion of the Colonnas, was born at Piscina in the Abruzzi on the 14th of July 1602.
On the 4th of December 1642 Cardinal Richelieu died, and on the very next day the king sent a circular letter to all officials ordering them to send in their reports to Cardinal Mazarin, as they had formerly done to Cardinal Richelieu.
Mazarin was thus acknowledged supreme minister, but he still had a difficult part to play.
Now that the queen was all-powerful, it was expected she would at once dismiss Mazarin and summon her own friends to power.
One of them, Potier, bishop of Beauvais, already gave himself airs as prime minister, but Mazarin had had the address to touch both the queen's heart by his Spanish gallantry and her desire for her son's glory by his skilful policy abroad, and he found himself able easily to overthrow the clique of Importants, as they were called.
Mazarin had inherited the policy of France during the Thirty Years' War from Richelieu.
During the last five years of the great war it was Mazarin alone who directed the French diplomacy of the period.
This celebrated treaty belongs rather to the history of Germany than to a life of Mazarin; but two questions have been often asked, whether Mazarin did not delay the peace as long as possible in order to more completely ruin Germany, and whether Richelieu would have made a similar peace.
Cheruel, prove a complete negative, for in them appears the zeal of Mazarin for the peace.
It was while in exile at Briihl that Mazarin saw the mistake he had made in isolating himself and the queen, and that his policy of balancing every party in the state against each other had made every party distrust him.
The new party grew in strength, and in January 1652, after exactly a year's absence, Mazarin returned to the court.
In order to promote a reconciliation with the parlement of Paris Mazarin had again retired from court, this time to Sedan, in.
Long had been the trial, and greatly had Mazarin been to blame in allowing the Frondes to come into existence, but he had retrieved his position by founding that great royal party which steadily grew until Louis XIV.
As the war had progressed, Mazarin had steadily followed Richelieu's policy of weakening the nobles on their country estates.
The Fronde over, Mazarin had to build up afresh the power of France at home and abroad.
To concede that the master was the greater man and the greater statesman does not imply that Mazarin was but a foil to his predecessor.
Mazarin was not a Frenchman, but a citizen of the world, and always paid most attention to foreign affairs; in his letters all that could teach a diplomatist is to be found, broad general views of policy, minute details carefully elaborated, keen insight into men's characters, cunning directions when to dissimulate or when to be frank.
- All the earlier works on Mazarin, and early accounts of his administration, of which the best were Bazin's Histoire de France sous Louis XIII.
Et sous le Cardinal Mazarin, 4 vols.
(1879-1880), which covers from 1643-1651, and its sequel Histoire de France sous le ministere de Cardinal Mazarin, 2 vols.
Iii.; for his early life to Cousin's Jeunesse de Mazarin (1865, and for the careers of his nieces to Renee's Les Nieces de Mazarin (1856).
Hassall, Mazarin (1903).
Then exiled by Mazarin to Blois in 1652 he remained there until his death on the 2nd of February 1660.
Other famous Indian diamonds are the following: - The Sancy, weighing 53 carats, which is said to have been successively the property of Charles the Bold, de Sancy, Queen Elizabeth, Henrietta Maria, Cardinal Mazarin, Louis XIV.; to have been stolen with the Pitt during the French Revolution; and subsequently to have been the property of the king of Spain, Prince Demidoff and an Indian prince.
Released when Mazarin went into exile, he wished to marry Mademoiselle de Chevreuse (1627-1652), daughter of the famous confidante of Anne of Austria, but was prevented by his brother, who was now supreme in the state.
He was concerned in the Fronde of 1651, but soon afterwards became reconciled with Mazarin, and in 16J4 married the cardinal's niece, Anne Marie Martinozzi (1639-1672), and secured the government of Guienne.
Cheruel, Histoire de la minorite de Louis XIV et du ministere de Mazarin (Paris, 1879); E.
Evidences of the change were numerous: Innocent promoted pro-Spanish cardinals; attacked the Barberini, proteges of Mazarin, and sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the independence of Portugal, then at war with Spain.
His father, an avocat au parlement, gave him an excellent education at the college Mazarin, and encouraged his taste for natural science; and he studied mathematics and astronomy with N.
But his conservative opinions rendered him more and more unpopular, and after the 10th of August 1792, when he took the side of the king, he was forced to lie concealed for some weeks in the observatory of the Mazarin College, from which he contrived to escape to the country.
It was the period of the wars of the Fronde; and in 1651 the triumph of the Conde family drove Cardinal Mazarin from Paris.
Colbert obtained, besides, the higher object of his ambition; the confidence of Mazarin, so far as it was granted to any one, became his, and he was entrusted with matters of the gravest importance.
His earliest tentative was the drawing up of a memoire to Mazarin, showing that of the taxes paid by the people not one-half reached the king.
The paper also contained an attack upon the superintendent Nicholas Fouquet, and being opened by the postmaster of Paris, who happened to be a spy of Fouquet's, it gave rise to a bitter quarrel, which, however, Mazarin repressed during his lifetime.
In 1661 the death of Mazarin allowed Colbert to take the first place in the administration, and he made sure of the king's favour by revealing to him some of Mazarin's hidden wealth.
He trafficked in public offices for the profit of Mazarin and in his own behalf.
Voltaire, in his Siècle de Louis XIV (1751), told the story of the mysterious masked prisoner with many graphic details; and, under the heading of "Ana" in the Questions sur l'encyclopedie (Geneva, 1771), he asserted that he was a bastard brother of Louis XIV., son of Mazarin and Anne of Austria.
The Breviary rightly so called, however, only dates from the nth century; the earliest MS. containing the whole canonical office is of the year 1099 and is in the Mazarin library.
The premature royalist rising, however, in August 1659 was defeated, and Charles, who had awaited the result on the coast of Brittany, proceeded to Fuenterrabia on the Spanish frontier, where Mazarin and Luis de Haro were negotiating the treaty of the Pyrenees, to induce both powers to support his cause; but the failure of the attempt in England ensured the rejection of his request, and he returned to Brussels in December, visiting his mother at Paris on the way.
But great anxiety was caused by a plot to restore Spanish rule, in which the duke of Caminha and the archbishop of Braga were implicated; and especially by the action of Mazarin, who had assumed control of French foreign policy in 1642.
Nor Mazarin desired the aggrandisement of Spain at the expense of their own ally; they therefore evaded the secret article by sending Marshal Schomberg to reorganize the Portuguese army (1660), and by helping forward a marriage between Charles II.
EUGENE OF SAVOY [[[Francois Eugene Vidocq|FRANCOIS EUGENE]]], Prince (1663-1736), fifth son of Prince Eugene Maurice of Savoy-Carignano, count of Soissons, and of Olympia Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin, was born at Paris on the 18th of October 1663.
He was rewarded by admission to the Academy and the appointment of mathematical professor in Mazarin college, where he worked in a small observatory fitted for his use.
On his return to Paris in 1754 Lacaille was distressed to find himself an object of public attention; he withdrew to Mazarin college, and there died, on the 21st of March 1762, of an attack of gout aggravated by unremitting toil.
The intervention of Mazarin, despatched by the pope, who saw no other means of detaching Italy from Spain than by introducing France into the affair, brought about the signature of the armistice of Rivalte on the 4th of September 1630, soon developed into the peace of Cherasco, which reestablished the~agreement with the still fugitive duke of Savoy (June 1631).
But thanks to Mazarin, who completed his work, France gathered in the harvest sown by Richelieu.