A well-known legal maxim runs: ignorantia juris non excusat ("ignorance of the law does not excuse").
He considers that this fundamental rule or imperative " act on a maxim which thou canst will to be law universal " supplies a sufficient criterion for determining particular duties in all cases.
Chicheley now became the subject of a leading case, the court of king's bench deciding, of ter arguments reheard in three successive terms, that he could not hold his previous benefices with the bishopric, and that, spite of the maxim Papa potest omnia, a papal bull could not supersede the law of the land (Year-book ii.
The Royalist cavalry was disorganized by victory as often as by defeat, and illustrated on numerous fields the now discredited maxim that cavalry cannot charge twice in one day.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
" I am not conscious," says he, " of having ever bought a book from a motive of ostentation; every volume, before it was deposited on the shelf, was either read or sufficiently examined "; he also mentions that he soon adopted the tolerating maxim of the elder Pliny, that no book is ever so bad as to be absolutely good for nothing.
Still following the wise maxim which he had adopted as a student, " multum legere potius quam multa," he reviewed again and again the immortal works of the French and English, the Latin and Italian classics.
At the age of fourteen he found his way to Berlin, where Frederick the Great, inspired by the spirit of Voltaire, held the maxim that " to oppress the Jews never brought prosperity to any government."
As a maxim for guidance in public affairs, laisser faire was genuinely relevant at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, when the Statute Book was cumbered with vexatious and obsolete laws.
He also made it a principle not to relate that which was already well known, a maxim which necessarily prevented his works attaining a popularity with the unlearned equal to their reputation among historians.
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and the battleship " Messudiyeh " (9100 tons displacement) reconstructed by the firm of Ansaldo (Genoa) in 1902, and re-armed by Vickers, Sons & Maxim, formed the only really effective war-ships at the disposal of Turkey in 1910, although a few armoured ships in addition might still serve for coast defence at a pinch, and a few more for training ships.
The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.
In taking this course Joseph made the capital mistake of neglecting the Machiavellian maxim that in changing the substance of cherished institutions the prince should be careful to preserve the semblance.
With this is sometimes coupled another maxim: ignorantia facti excusat (" ignorance of the fact excuses").
So far as regards criminal offences, the maxim as to ignorantia juris admits of no exception, even in the case of a foreigner temporarily in England, who is likely to be ignorant of English law.
He reversed the Hippocratic maxim "art is long," promising his scholars to teach them the whole of medicine in six months, and had inscribed upon his tomb iaTpovLKc, 7 r, as being superior to all living and bygone physicians.
It is interesting to find that, with all this activity in the present reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievements of modern research and reconstruction the maxim that "Truth is the daughter of Time" has not been forgotten.
It was a maxim of the Sikhs of his time: "If any one treat you ill, bear it.
The maxim of Protagoras, for example, "Man is the measure of all things," has a different purpose; it was meant to point to the truth that man rather than nature is the primary object of human study: it is a doctrine of humanism rather than of relativism.
On the other hand, he advances too easily from the maxim that function is prior to, and makes, structure to the conclusion that the results of use and disuse are therefore immediately incarnated in structural adaptations capable of hereditary transmission.
He was the last man in the world to act on the worldly-wise maxim that an enemy should always be treated as if he may one day be a friend, and a friend as if he might become an enemy.
They turned the maxim that "there is no peace beyond the line" against its inventors.
A valuable work on the condition of Poland was written by Stanislaus Leszczynski, who was twice chosen king, entitled Glos wolny wolno§ g ubezpieczajq,cy (A Free Voice Guaranteeing Freedom), where he tells the Poles some homely and perhaps disagreeable truths illustrating the maxim Summa libertas etiam perire volentibus.
Ingalls, U.S.A., for approximating to a high angle trajectory in a single arc, which assumes that the mean density of the air may be taken as the density at two-thirds of the estimated height of the vertex; the rule is founded on the fact that in an unresisted parabolic trajectory the average height of the shot is two-thirds the height of the vertex, as illustrated in a jet of water, or in a stream of bullets from a Maxim gun.
With a maxim such as this, it was easy for him to maintain that Elizabeth's coercive measures were political and not religious.
Following what was then deemed a fundamental maxim of political science, they divided the government into three departments, the legislative, the executive and the judicial, and sought to keep each of these as far as possible detached from and independent of the other two.
So the practice of securing places for persons who have served the party, in however humble a capacity, has sprung from the maxim that in the strife of politics the spoils belong to the victors, and has furnished a motive of incomparable and ever-present activity ever since the administration (1829-1837) of President Andrew Jackson.
The power which the king exercised on these various occasions was a royal privilege recognized by old French law, and can be traced to a maxim which furnished a text of the Digest of Justinian: "Rex solutus est a legibus."
The first maxim is indisputable, provided we understand by "harder" harder to the scribe, and by "easier" easier to the scribe.
The second maxim refers to the well-known fact that accretions from marginalia, &c., lengthen and at the same time weaken a text.
This bias is reflected in the maxim that "correction should precede interpretation," which is no more than a half-truth.
No doubt, rational evidences had appeared in books of rhetoric, as we see from Plato's Phaedrus, 266-267,where we find proofs,probabilities, refutation and maxim, but mixed up with other evidences.
Each of them, the probability (chap. 8), the example (chap. 9), the proof (chap. to), the consideration (chap. 11), the maxim (chap. 12), the sign (chap. 13), the refutation (chap. 14), though very like what it is in the Rhetoric, receives in the Rhetoric to Alexander a definition slightly different from the definition in the Rhetoric, which it must be remembered is also the definition in the Prior Analytics.
Originally the rule was for the states to hold annual elections; in fact, so strongly did the feeling prevail of the need in a democratic country for frequent elections, that the maxim " where annual elections end, tyranny begins," became a political proverb.
10 It is a maxim of the law indeed that, as Coke says, " the knight is by creation and not by descent," and, although we hear of such designations as the " knight of Kerry " or the " knight of Glin," they are no more than traditional nicknames, and do not by any means imply that the persons to whom they are applied are knights in a legitimate sense.
Sir Walter assures us that a Scots earl took this maxim so seriously to heart that he planted a large tract of country with trees, a practice which in these days is promoted by the English and Royal Scottish Arboricultural Societies.
The general rule was said to be that all lands within a parish are subject to tithes, and a layman was not allowed to prescribe generally that his lands were exempt; but he had to show a special exemption, and no length of possession was regarded in law in view of the maxim nullum tempos occurrit ecclesiae, although equity did take account of it.
Und Maxim-ilians I.
It contains the famous maxim that purity of intention may be a justification of actions which are contrary to the moral code and to human laws; and its general tendency is to find excuses for the majority of human frailties.
In 1908 the Egyptian army, with a total establishment of 18,000, consisted of three squadrons of cavalry (one composed of Sudanese) each numbering 116 men; four batteries of field artillery and a Maxim battery, horses and mules being used, with a total strength of 1257 of all ranks; the camel corps, 626 of all ranks (fellahin and Sudanese); and nine fellahin and si-x Sudanese infantry battalions, 10,631 of all ranks.
This last was the collection first known and chiefly used in the West during the middle ages; and of its 134 only 97 have been written on by the glossatores or medieval commentators; these therefore alone have been received as binding in those countries which recognize and obey the Roman law, - according to the maxim Quicquid non agnoscit glossa, nec agnoscit curia.
It expressly refers itself to the maxim of Protagoras that "man is the measure of all things," and is best conceived as a protest against the assumption that logic can treat thought in abstraction from its psychological context and the personality of the knower, i.e.
As constable of Dundee he secured the commutation of the death penalty on minor offenders under his jurisdiction, and his expressed maxim was " in the greatest crimes it is thought wisest to pardon the multitude and punish the ringleaders."
That the state should appropriate to itself a direct share in the produce of the soil is a fundamental maxim of Indian finance that has been recognized throughout the East from time immemorial.
It used to be held as a maxim that plague never appeared east of the Indus; nevertheless it was observed during the 19th century in more than one distinct centre in India.
What can come nearer Hume's celebrated maxim - "Anything may be the cause of anything else," than Butler's conclusion, "so that any one thing whatever may, for aught we know to the contrary, be a necessary condition to any other."
Its one object was to broaden Burgundy's mind, and ever keep before his eyes the "great and holy maxim that kings exist for the sake of their subjects, not subjects for the sake of kings."
So, too, in his great maxim " bear and forbear," the last is a command to refrain from the external advantages.
Maxim, who began their aerial experiments about the same time (1888-18go).
Maxim, like Langley, employed a staff of highly skilled workmen.
Maxim, Artificial and Natural Flight (London, 1908); F.
Of a more decided polemical character is the Lumina of Maxim of Peloponnesus, translated from the Greek (Bucharest, 1699).
He was "rooted" in what Diodati described to Dohna as "the most dangerous maxim, that God does not regard externals so long as the mind and heart are right before Him."
Sarpi had another maxim, which he thus formulated to Dohna: Le falsita non dico mai mai, ma la verita non a ognuno.
It was a fundamental maxim that the sage was to take part in public life; and it does not appear that his political action was to be regulated by any other principles than those commonly accepted in his community.
The poet Dr Laza Kostich made excellent translations from Shakespeare (King Lear, Romeo and Juliet, King Richard III.), and gave the Servian stage two of its best tragedies: Maxim Tsrnoyevich and Petar Segedinats; also the comedy Gordana.
For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil in intellectu quod non pries fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense - that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be immaterial and immortal - the most characteristic distinction of humanity - attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii..383).
The Roman maxim that what the prince wills has the force of law wa4 not disputednor did the Spaniard doubt that the king acting by himself was the prince.
For as in this world, head winds are far more prevalent than winds from astern (that is, if you never violate the Pythagorean maxim), so for the most part the Commodore on the quarter-deck gets his atmosphere at second hand from the sailors on the forecastle.
Nevertheless, as upon the good conduct of the harpooneers the success of a whaling voyage largely depends, and since in the American Fishery he is not only an important officer in the boat, but under certain circumstances (night watches on a whaling ground) the command of the ship's deck is also his; therefore the grand political maxim of the sea demands, that he should nominally live apart from the men before the mast, and be in some way distinguished as their professional superior; though always, by them, familiarly regarded as their social equal.
Here be it known, that though these wild fishermen do not, as a general thing, and according to the great military maxim, make the enemy defray the current expenses of the war (at least before realizing the proceeds of the voyage), yet now and then you find some of these Nantucketers who have a genuine relish for that particular part of the Sperm Whale designated by Stubb; comprising the tapering extremity of the body.
"But you know the wise maxim your excellency, advising one to expect the worst," said the Austrian general, evidently wishing to have done with jests and to come to business.
But the legal maxim that corporations never die is well illustrated by the survival of the fine series, not complete, indeed, but very full, of the matrices of English corporations, beginning with the close of the 12th century.
Became a maxim of state policy.