The French congregation (which does not enjoy continuity with the Maurists) was inaugurated by Dom Gueranger in 1833, and the German congregation of Beuron in 1863.
During the period under review, from the Reformation to the French Revolution, the old orders went on alongside of the new, and many notable revivals and congregations arose among them: the most noteworthy were the Capuchins among the Franciscans (1528); the Discalced Carmelites of St Teresa and St John of the Cross (1562); the Trappists (q.v.) among the Cistercians (1663); and, most famous of all, the Maurists among the Benedictines of France (1621).
But in pre-Revolution days there had also been the critical school of the Maurists, which offered an alternative to minds averse from implicit reliance on tradition.
The France of the Maurists supplied the most essential of these instruments.
Peasant near Reims. In 16J3 he became a monk in the abbey of St Remi at Reims. In 1664 he was placed at St Germain-desPres in Paris, the great literary workshop of the Maurists, where he lived and worked for twenty years, at first under d'Achery, with whom he edited the nine folio volumes of Acta of the Benedictine Saints.
On his return to Paris he was called upon to defend against de Rance, the abbot of La Trappe, the legitimacy for monks of the kind of studies to which the Maurists devoted themselves: this called forth Mabillon's Traite des etudes 7nonastiques and his Reflexions sur la reponse de M.
Trappe (1691-1692), works embodying the ideas and programme of the Maurists for ecclesiastical studies.