BOCCHUS, king of Mauretania (about 110 B.C.), and father-inlaw of Jugurtha.
His son, BoccHus, was king of Mauretania, jointly with a younger brother Bogud.
He returned through Gaul into Spain, and then proceeded to Mauretania, where he suppressed an insurrection.
The ancient caravan route from Mauretania to the western Sudan crossed the lower Moroccan Atlas by the pass of Tilghemt and passed through the oasis of Tafilalt, formerly known as Sajilmasa [" Sigilmassa "1, on the east side of the Anti-Atlas.
Cyrenaica, on the east, attached to Egypt, was then excluded from it, and, similarly, Mauretania, on the west.
In Diocletian's great reform of the administrative system of the empire, the whole of Roman Africa, with the exception of Mauretania Tingitana (which was attached to the province of Spain), constituted a single diocese subdivided into six provinces: Zeugitana (Carthage), Byzacium (Hadrumetum, now Susa), Numidia Cirtensis (Cirta, Constantine), Tripolitana (Tripolis), Mauretania Sitifensis (Sitifis, Setif), and Mauretania Caesariensis (Caesarea, now Cherchel).
The much more detailed list of Ptolemy enumerates 39 indigenous tribes in the province of Africa and 25 in Mauretania Caesariensis.
The present writer believes that the date palm was really indigenous to this district of the Jerid, as it is to countries of similar description in southern Morocco, southern Algeria, parts of the Tripolitaine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, southern Persia and north-western India; but that north of the latitude of the Jerid the date did not grow naturally in Mauretania, just as it was foreign to all parts of Europe, in which, as in true North Africa, its presence is due to the hand of man.
Of Mauretania with the accounts of coasting voyages by Nearchus and other geographers, and circulated by him under the name of Onesicritus, was largely used by Pliny.
In the same year he crossed over to Bogud, king of Mauretania, and is not heard of again until 21, when he appears as proconsul of Africa.
Lixus in Mauretania, Gades and Utica, are said to have been founded, one after the other, as far back as the 12th century B.C. Most of the African colonies were no doubt younger; we have traditional dates for Aoza (887-855) and Carthage (813).
Palestine, Phoenicia, Arabia, certain parts of Mesopotamia, the interior districts of Greece, the provinces on the north of Greece, the northern districts of middle Italy, the provinces of Mauretania and Tripolis.
The Roman Tingis, which stood in the immediate vicinity of the site of Tangier, was of great antiquity; under Augustus it became a free city, and when Otho placed the western half of Mauretania under a procurator, he called it Mauretania Tingitana after its capital Tingis.
MAURETANIA, the ancient name of the north-western angle of the African continent, and under the Roman Empire also of a large territory eastward of that angle.
The name had different significations at different times; but before the Roman occupation, Mauretania comprised a considerable part of the modern Morocco i.e.
On the other hand, the Gaetulians to the south of the Atlas range, on the date-producing slopes towards the Sahara, seem to have owned a precarious subjection to the kings of Mauretania, as afterwards to the Roman government.
(For physical geography, see MoRocco.) Mauretania, or Maurusia as it was called by Greek writers, signified the land of the Mauri, a term still retained in the modern name of Moors.
They first appear in history at the time of the Jugurthine War (110 -106 B.C.), when Mauretania was under the government of Bocchus and seems to have been recognized as organized state (Sallust, Jugurtha, 19).
Mauretania Tingitana to the west of the Mulucha and M.
Thus the dividing line between the two provinces was the same as that which had originally separated Mauretania from Numidia (q.v.).
In the two provinces of Mauretania there were at the time of Pliny a number of towns, including seven (possibly eight) Roman colonies in M.
On the whole Mauretania was in a flourishing condition down to the irruption of the Vandals in A.D.
He then went to live at Chalcedon, whence in 367 he was banished to Mauretania for harbouring the rebel Procopius.
They first appear in history at the time of the Jugurthine War (110-106 B.C.), when Mauretania west of the Mulucha was under the government of a king called Bocchus, and appears to have constituted a regular and organized state.
With the rest of North Africa Mauretania was overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century.
See Dr Arthur Leared, Morocco and the Moors (1891); Budgett Meakin, The Moorish Empire (1899); and The Moors (1902); Frances Macnab, A Ride in Morocco (1902); and see under Morocco; Mauretania; Berbers, &C.
After 293 Maximianus left the care of the Rhine frontier to Constantius Chlorus, who had been designated Caesar in that year, but in 297 his arms achieved a rapid and decisive victory over the barbarians of Mauretania, and in 302 he shared at Rome the triumph of Diocletian, the last pageant of the kind ever witnessed by that city.
In the early empire, North Africa (excluding Egypt) was divided into Mauretania, Numidia, Africa Propria and Cyrenaica.
Having been obliged to withdraw to Africa in consequence of the advance of the forces of Sulla over the Pyrenees, he carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sulla's generals and captured Tingis (Tangier).
THEODOSIUS I., "the Great," son of Theodosius, Valentinian's great general, who in 368-69 drove back the Picts and Scots from the Roman territories in Britain and suppressed the revolt of Firmus in Mauretania (372).
TERENTIANUS, surnamed Maurus (a native of Mauretania), Latin grammarian and writer on prosody, flourished probably at the end of the 2nd century A.D.
NUMIDIA, the name given in ancient times to a tract of country in the north of Africa, extending along the Mediterranean from the confines of Mauretania to those of the Roman province to Africa.
At the end of the war the victorious Romans confiscated the dominions of Syphax, and gave them to Massinissa, whose sway extended from the frontier of Mauretania to the boundary of the Carthaginian territory, and also south and east as far as the Cyrenaica (Appian, Punica, 106), so that the Numidian kingdom entirely surrounded Carthage except towards the sea.
It is said to have stood at Tingis in Mauretania, and to have borne that those who erected it had fled before 'Invous o X, WTns.