South of the town of Pantelleria, where there are considerable remains of walls in rectangular blocks of masonry, and also of a number of cisterns.
Without sharing Montalembert's antipathy to the bastioned trace, and his predilection for high masonry caponiers, he followed out the principle of retarding the development of the attack, and provided for the most active defence.
Here some remains of Cyclopean masonry exist; but the area enclosed, about zoo yds.
- The present London Bridge, begun in 1824 and completed in 1831, is as fine an example of a masonry arch structure as can be found (figs.
Portion, overlooking the sea, which was the acropolis, is surrounded by fine walls of masonry of rectangular blocks of stone, which show traces of the reconstruction of 408 B.C. It is traversed by two main streets, running N.
In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
The church of St James, belonging to a small community of Jacobite Christians, and a few pillars and blocks of masonry are the only remains of the former greatness of the town.
Masonry of this type, however, occurring in Illyria and Dalmatia (e.g.
Three miles to the south of Herat the Kandahar road crosses the river by a masonry bridge of 26 arches now in ruins.
Three or four piers or sometimes bridges of masonry are run out into the bed of the river, frequently from both sides at once, raising the level of the stream and thus giving a water power sufficient to turn the gigantic wheel or wheels, sometimes almost 40 ft.
For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
A portion of the outer wall has been recognized in a piece of primitive masonry discovered near the Odeum of Herodes Atticus; other traces will probably come to light when the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis have been completely explored.
By 212), the upper portion of which is cut out of the rock, while the lower is enclosed by a semicircular wall of massive masonry; the theory of these scholars, however, that the whole precinct was a sanctuary of the Pelasgian Zeus cannot be regarded as proved, nor is it easy to abandon the generally received view that this was the scene of the popular assemblies of later times, notwithstanding the apparent unsuitability of the ground and the insufficiency of room for a large multitude.
These difficulties are met by the assumption that the semicircular masonry formed the base of a retaining-wall which rose to a considerable height, supporting a theatre-like structure capable of seating many thousand persons.
The masonry may be attributed to the 5th century; the chiselling of the immense blocks is not " Cyclopean."
In front of the reservoir is a small open space towards which several roads converge; close by is a triangular enclosure of polygonal masonry, in which were found various relics relating to the worship of Dionysus, a very ancient wine-press (Anvos) and the remains of a small temple.
81), which, he holds, was not a royal palace, but a place of worship, and traces of it may perhaps be recognized in the fragments of prehistoric masonry enclosed by the existing foundations.
The scanty traces which remain have not been systematically excavated except in the neighbourhood of the Dipylon; the discovery of sepulchral tablets built into the masonry illustrates the statement of Thucydides with regard to the employment of such material in the hasty construction of the walls.
At the south-western corner, on the right of the approach to the old entrance, a bastion of early masonry was encased in a rectangular projection which formed a base for the temple of Nike.
The event created great excitement, and led many to believe that Masonry and good citizenship were incompatible.
Opposition to Masonry was taken up by the churches as a sort of religious crusade, and it also became a local political issue in western New York, where early in 1827 the citizens in many mass meetings resolved to support no Mason for public office.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
See Charles McCarthy, The Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political Anti-Masonry in the United States, 1827-1840, in the Report of the American Historical Association for 1902 (Washington, 1903); the Autobiography of Thurlow Weed (2 vols., Boston, 1884); A.
They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
In each case the arched tomb was formed by an oblong chest, either hollowed out of the rock, or built of masonry, and closed with a horizontal slab.
The other industries are leather work, sugar-refining, goldsmith's work, ivory carving, iron, brass, copper, stone masonry, tanning, weaving, dyeing and carpentry.
In 110o granted it to Roger Bigod, who in all probability raised the first masonry castle.
On the 13th of September 1584 the last stone of the masonry was laid, and the works were brought to a termination in 1593.
The main room of the ordinary temple was rectangular, with an elevated apsidal arrangement, like a choir, containing the sacred relief on its wall, at the end opposite the entrance, and with continuous benches (podia) of masonry, about 5 ft.
The sea front is protected by a masonry wall, and there are over 13,000 ft.
After crossing the low hills east of the Pyramus it passed through a masonry (Cilician) gate, Demir Kapu, and entered the plain of Issus.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
For moderate spans brick, masonry or concrete can be used without excessive cost, but for longer spans steel is more economical, and for very long spans its use is imperative.
Masonry and concrete are more durable than metal, and metal than timber.
Masonry bridges are preferable in appearance to any others, and metal arch bridges are less objectionable than most forms of girder.
For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression is the most natural form.
In some recent masonry arched bridges of spans up to ' so f t.
In Germany and America twoand three-hinged arches of masonry and concrete have been built, up to 150 ft.
P. 290.) The largest masonry arch is the Adolphe bridge in Luxemburg, erected in 1900-1903.
The porticos have fallen, and their broken monolithic columns, with fragments of cornices and other masonry, lie piled within the enclosure, which is still partly paved.
Modern writers rather dwell on the perfect organization demanded by his scheme, the training of a nation to combined labour, the level attained here by art and in the fitting of masonry, and finally the fact that the Great Pyramid was the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and now alone of them survives.
At Uxmal the mass of masonry is to chamber space about as forty to one.