The question as to the date of the martyrdom has evoked considerable controversy.
The Martyrdom had been previously edited by Assemani and by Bedjan.
The name was also borne by the following saints: (1) a Roman tribune who suffered martyrdom under Hadrian; (2) a bishop of Siscia in Pannonia; (3) the patron of the Tegernsee in Bavaria, beheaded in Rome in 269 and invoked by those suffering from gout.
Fanatics sought death by insulting the magistrates or by breaking idols, and in their enthusiasm for martyrdom became self-centred and forgetful of their normal duty.
The Martyrdom of Thomas attaches as the fourteenth.
1906), p. 185, according to whom the legends of Virginia and Lucretia (two different versions of one and the same story, connecting the history of Roman liberty with the martyrdom of a woman) are nothing but late elaborations of legends connected with the cults of Ardea.
While the honour paid to martyrdom was a great support to early champions of the faith, it was attended by serious evils.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
But the fact of the martyrdom is unquestionable.
Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land.
When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the Christians, that the only mention of them in the Meditations is a contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
155), the crowd shouted, "This is the father of the Christians" 2; but the words were probably prompted by the Jews, who took a prominent part in the martyrdom, and who naturally viewed Polycarp in the light of a great Christian rabbi, and gave him the title which their own teachers bore.
De Beauchesne of the physical martyrdom of the child are not supported by any other testimony, though he was at this time seen by a great number of people.
The tradition that he was descended from Dr Rowland Taylor, Cranmer's chaplain, who suffered martyrdom under Mary, is grounded on the untrustworthy evidence of a certain Lady Wray, said to have been a granddaughter of Jeremy Taylor.
It was thought that martyrdom would atone for sin, and imprisoned confessors not only issued to the Churches commands which were regarded almost as inspired utterances, but granted pardons in rash profusion to those who had been excommunicated by the regular clergy, a practice which caused Cyprian and his fellow bishops much difficulty.
15) and Achilleus, said to have been baptized by St Peter, refused to do the bidding of Domitian as praetorians, and entering the service of Flavia Domitilla, suffered martyrdom with their mistress Petronilla, of the Aurelian family closely connected with the Flavii, and the spiritual daughter of St Peter, who was buried in a sarcophagus with the inscription: [[Avreliae Petronillae Fil Dvlcissimae]] This is now in St Peter's, but was probably originally behind the apse of this basilica, for there is a fresco of her in an arcosolium, with a matron named Veneranda.
When, in the year 289, St Cyprian was led to martyrdom, he wore, according to Eusebius (Hist.
As regards the martyrdom, owing to the confusion introduced by the multitudinous Catholic revisions of this section of the Acts, it is practically impossible to restore its original.
These Acts, which Ficker holds were written as a continuation and completion of the canonical Acts of the Apostles, deal with Peter's victorious conflict with Simon Magus, and his subsequent martyrdom at Rome under Nero.
For the relation of the Actus Vercellenses to the " Martyrdom of the holy apostles Peter and Paul " (Acta Apostol.
An independent Latin translation of the " Martyrdom of Peter " is published by Lipsius (op. cit.
The Martyrdom of Simeon exists in two recensions which have been separately edited by M.
The Anglican Church, while still commemorating many of the Catholic saints, has not, since the Reformation, admitted any new names to the authoritative list, with the single exception of that of King Charles I., whose "martyrdom" was celebrated by authority from the Restoration until the year 1859.
Large "incense trees" resembling our Christmas trees, formed of incense-sticks and pastils and osselets, and alight all over, are borne by the Shiah Mussulmans in the solennial procession of the Mohurrum, in commemoration of the martyrdom of the sons of Ali.
He suffered martyrdom at the village of Catulliacus, the modern St Denis.
A false interpretation of Gregory of Tours, apparently dating from 724, represented St Denis as having received his mission from Pope Clement, and as having suffered martyrdom under Domitian (81-96).
The legend of his missionary labours in Cyprus, including martyrdom at Salamis, is quite late and untrustworthy.
Madden, The Life and Martyrdom of Girolamo Savonarola, &c. (London, 18 54); Bartolommeo Aquarone, Vita di Fra Geronimo Savonarola (Alessandria, 1857); L.
St Thomas accordingly went to India and suffered martyrdom there.
In the 2nd century it was the scene of the martyrdom of St Benignus (Benigne, vulg.
Their enthusiasm and their prophesyings were denounced as demoniacal; their expectation of a glorious earthly kingdom of Christ was stigmatized as Jewish, their passion for martyrdom as vainglorious and their whole conduct as hypocritical.
But in that case we must either reject the testimony of the same Hegesippus that up to their death, and that of Symeon son of Clopas, successor in the Jerusalem see of James the Lord's brother, " who suffered martyrdom at the age of one hundred and twenty years while Trajan was emperor and Atticus governor," " the church (universal) had remained a pure and uncorrupted virgin " free from " the folly of heretical teachers "; or else we must reject the superscription, which presents the grandfather in vehement conflict with the very heresies in question.
True, there is confusion in the narrative of Hegesippus, and even a probability that the martyrdom of Symeon dated under Trajan really took place in the persecution of Domitian,before the arrest of the grandsons of Jude, for apart from the alleged age of Symeon (the traditional Jewish limit of human life, Gen.
Iii.32, 3) is inconsistent with both the previous statements regarding the " martyrdom " of Zoker and James, that they were cited as the only surviving Christian Davididae, and that the persecution on this ground collapsed through the manifest absurdity of the accusation.
32.7 seq., it is expressly dated after the martyrdom of Symeon and death of the grandsons of Jude under Trajan.
In some known cases the expelled Moriscos suffered martyrdom in Africa as Christians.
The prophecy of the two witnesses and their martyrdom belongs to this tradition.
9, and of an actual martyrdom at Pergamum, ii.
The sources from which we derive our knowledge of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authorities have all been more or less called in question and some of them entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few words about each.
The epistle gives a minute description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many instructive details and professes to have been written not long after the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one of the most precious remains of the 2nd century.
7 The last named regards the document "as a decorated narrative of the saint's martyrdom framed after the pattern of Jesus' martyrdom," though he thinks that it cannot be put as late as 250, but must fall within the limits of the 2nd century.
Patrick Hamilton became titular abbot in 1517, and after his martyrdom the abbey was added to the bishopric of Ross.
The later years of Francis's reign were noteworthy for the horrible massacre of the Waldenses and the martyrdom of fourteen from the group of Meaux, who were burnt alive in 1546.
The details of the disputation with Pyrrhus and of the martyrdom are given very fully and clearly in Hefele's Conciliengeschichte, iii.
The date of their martyrdom is the 17th of July A.D.
We have in this martyrdom an excellent example of "Acts of Martyrs" properly so called.
To this old track the name of " pilgrims' way " has been given, for along it passed the stream of pilgrims coming through Winchester from the south and west of England and from the continent of Europe by way of Southampton to Canterbury Cathedral to view the place of the martyrdom of Thomas Becket, in the north transept, to the relics in the crypt where he was first buried after his murder, in 1170, and the shrine in the Trinity Chapel which rose above his tomb after the translation of the body in 1220.
In late versions this legend was expanded and varied, the martyrdom was connected with a refusal to take part in a great sacrifice ordered at Octodurum and the name of Exsuperius was added to that of Mauritius.
His mother, in 1537, suffered martyrdom as an Anabaptist.
MESHED (properly Mash-had, " the place of martyrdom"), capital of the province of Khorasan in Persia, situated in a plain watered by the Kashaf-rud (Tortoise river), a tributary of the Hari-rud (river from Herat, which after its junction with the Kashaf is called Tejen), 460 m.
But in England, France and Germany persecution altogether failed to shake the courage of the Jews, and martyrdom was borne in preference to ostensible apostasy.
Modern: - Morris, Life and Martyrdom of St Thomas Becket (London, 1885); Lhuillier, Saint Thomas de Cantorbery (2 vols., Paris, 1891-1892); J.
Salsa's martyrdom took place in the 4th century.
Martyrdom of Isaiah.
(f) Martyrdom of Paul.
Thus the work was composed before 190, and, since it most probably uses the martyrdom of Polycarp, after 155.
We must remember, too, that Ignatius was writing under the consciousness of impending martyrdom and evidently felt that this gave him the right to criticize the bishops and churches of Asia.
The statement seems to imply that he was of Christian parentage; he cannot have been older than eighty-six at the time of his martyrdom, since he had paid a visit to Rome almost immediately before.
A Christian appends the words: "And so they all together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever.
Proculus, patron of Puteoli, and others, suffered martyrdom at Puteoli.
It is of Jewish origin, and recounts the martyrdom of Isaiah at the hands of Manasseh.