Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The hospices and hpitaux and Guadeloupe the bureaux de bienfaisance, the founda- Martinique tion of which is optional for the commune, St Pierre and Miquel are managed by committees consisting of the mayor of the municipality and six Total in Am members, two elected by the municipal council and four nominated by the prefect.
Opinion had been prejudiced by the insurrections in St Domingo and Martinique, and in the British island of Dominica; and the motion was defeated by 163 votes against 88.
He left Cadiz on the night of the 9th/loth of April, and reached Fort de France in Martinique on the 14th of May.
Coffee was introduced from Martinique in 1784 and its exportation began five years later.
He chose the profession of military engineer, spent three years, to the decided injury of his health, at Fort Bourbon, Martinique, and was employed on his return at Rochelle, the Isle of Aix and Cherbourg.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run direct, and there limed and heated.
In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
Notably Martinique, Guadaloupe and Santa Lucia, where it is known as the "Fer de Lance"; Mexicans call it "rabo de hueso" or bone-tail, on account of the curiously coloured and spike-like tip of the tail.
During the last months of the war Sir John Harman had fought a successful campaign in the West Indies against the French on whom he inflicted a severe defeat at Martinique on the 24th of June.
In France, Madame de Pompadour was their enemy because they had refused her absolution while she remained the king's mistress; but the immediate cause of their ruin was the bankruptcy of Father Lavalette, the Jesuit superior in Martinique, a daring speculator, who failed, after trading for some years, for 2,400,000 francs and brought ruin upon some French commercial houses of note.
On the 7th of September the French governor of Martinique, the marquis de Bouille, had surprised the British island of Dominica.
In two subsequent actions, on the 15th and 19th of May, to windward of Martinique, the French admiral would not be brought to close action.
Island after island fell to him, and soon, outside Martinique, the French had scarcely a foothold in the West Indies.
La Valette, superior of the Jesuit missions in Martinique, had set up as a West-India merchant on a large scale.
In 1639 Constant d'Aubigne was released from prison and took all his family with him to Martinique, where he died in 1645, after having lost what fortune remained to him at cards.
There is a regular mail service between Cayenne and Martinique once a month.
The father, who was born in Martinique, and served in the American War of Independence, took part in the politics of the French Revolution, and in June - August 1793 commanded the army of the Rhine.
The governor of Martinique, du Parquet, purchased it in 1650, and the French were well received by the Caribs, whom they afterwards extirpated with the greatest cruelty.
He died at sea on the 12th of April 1850, while on his way to Martinique, in search of health.
In the memorable engagement of the 12th of April 1782, in which Rodney defeated the comte de Grasse, near Martinique, Bougainville, who commanded the "Auguste," succeeded in rallying eight ships of his own division, and bringing them safely into St Eustace.
In 1809, in command of the naval force on shore, he contributed greatly to the reduction of Martinique, and signed the capitulation by which that island was handed over to the English; for his services on this occasion he received the thanks of the House of Commons.