Martens, Die romische Frage unter Pippin u.
De Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres (St Petersburg, from 1878 still incomplete), which contains valuable historical introductions based on unpublished sources; A.
It is still customary to determine the open flash-point and firetest of lubricating oils, but the close flash-point is also usually ascertained, a modification of the Abel or Abel-Pensky apparatus, known as the Pensky-Martens, having been devised for the purpose.
De Martens, then member of the council of the ministry of foreign affairs at St Petersburg.
Pennanti), the martens are much alike in size, general colouring and cranial and dental characters.
Its general colour is blackish, lighter by mixture of brown or grey on the head and upper fore part of the body, with no light patch on the throat, and unlike other martens generally darker below than above.
De Martens, Traite du droit international, translated by A.
Martens, Die falsche Generalkonzession Konstantins des Grossen (Munich, 1889); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, "Neue This is also W.
De Martens' Recueil des traitis conclus par la Russie.
De Martens, Recueil des Traites, &c. (Gottingue, 1831).
The Carnivora include bears, wolverines, wolves, raccoons, foxes, sables, martens, skunks, kolinskis, fitch, fishers, ermines, cats, sea otters, fur seals, hair seals, lions, tigers, leopards, lynxes, jackals, &c. The Rodentia include beavers, nutrias, musk-rats or musquash, marmots, hamsters, chinchillas, hares, rabbits, squirrels, &c. The Ungulata include Persian, Astrachan, Crimean, Chinese and Tibet lambs, mouflon, guanaco, goats, ponies, &c. The Marsupialia include opossums, wallabies and kangaroos.
The skins are sold in the trade sale as martens, but as there are many that are of a very dark colour and the majority are almost as silky as the Russian sable, the retail trade has for generations back applied the term of sable to this fur.
In England, for instance, the dressing of sables, martens, foxes, otters, seals, bears, lions, tigers and leopards is first rate; while with skunk, mink, musquash, chinchillas, beavers, lambs and squirrels, the Germans show better results, particularly in the last.
The sables, martens, minks and otters are poor in quality, and all of a very yellow colour and they are generally dyed for the cheap trade.
As has been explained, sable is a term applied for centuries past to the darker sorts of the Russian Siberian martens, and for years past the same term has been bestowed by the retail trade upon the American and Canadian martens.
The baum and stone martens caught in France, the north of Turkey and Norway are of the same family, but coarser in underwool and the top hair is less in quantity and not so silky.
This is also of the marten species and has been frequently offered, when dyed dark, as have baum and stone martens, as Russian sables.
SABLE, the name of a small quadruped, closely akin to the martens, and known by the zoological name of Mustela zibellina.
Foxes, martens, weasels, badgers and otters are to be found everywhere; bears are found in the Alps, wolves are rare, but they find their way sometimes from French territory to the western provinces, or from Poland to Prussia and Posen.
De Martens, it is compiled on the principle of devoting separate volumes to the treaties entered into with the several states; this is obviously convenient as enabling the student to obtain a clear review of the relations of Austria to any particular state throughout the whole period covered.
De Martens, continued by C. de Martens, Saalfeld, Murhard, K.
De Martens for Russia (the 9 vols.
De Martens) as constituting a " droit administratif international."
On the history of the great European treaties generally, see the Histoire abregee des traites de paix entre les puissances de l'Europe, by Koch, as recast and continued by Scholl (1817 and 1818), and again by Count de Garden in 1848-1859, as also the Recueil manuel of De Martens and Cussy, continued by Geffcken.
Martens and otters are to some extent hunted for their skins.
KOnig, Handbuch des deutschen Konsularwesens (6th ed., Berlin, 1902); Martens, Das deutsche Konsularand Kolonialrecht (Leipzig, 1904); Malfatti di Monte Tretto, Handbuch des osterreichischungarischen Konsularwesens (2 vols., 2nd ed., Vienna, 1904).
De Martens (Traité de droit international, 1883, i.
Martens, Gregor VII., sein Leben and Wirken (2 vols., Leipzig,.
Martens, Recueil, viii.
The new Anglo-Russian entente led in 1844 to a visit of the Martens, Recueil, viii.
13, 1833) in Martens Recueil, iv.
De Martens (St Petersburg, 1874-1909) contains admirable introductory essays, based on the unpublished Russian archives, and giving much material for the study of Nicholas's character and policy.
Martens, side by side with the Lithoglyptidae of Aurivillius and the Alcippidae of Gerstaecker.
Fauna.-The animal kingdom embraces, besides the usual domestic animals (as horses, cattle, sheep, swine, goats, asses, &c.), wild boars, deer, wild goats, hares, &c.; also bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, wild cats, jackals, otters, beavers, polecats, martens, weasels and the like.
A few bears and wild boars and lynxes find shelter in the remoter forests, with many badgers, wolves, foxes, wildcats, martens and weasels.
As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.
Von Martens, Beitrdge zur Meeresfauna der Insel Mauritius and der Seychellen (Berlin, 1880); G.
The brilliant promise of his early years; the haunting memory of the crime by which he had obtained the power to realize his ideals; and, in the end, the terrible ' Apercu des idees de l'Empereur, Martens IV.
' Martens IV.
De Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie, &c. (St Petersb., 1874, &c.); Wellington Despatches; Castlereagh Correspondence; Prince Adam Czartoryski, Memoires et correspondance avec l'empereur Alexandre I.