(For the Roman god, identified with Ares, see Mars.) As contrasted with Athena, who added to her other attributes that of being the goddess of well-conducted military operations, he personifies brute strength and the wild rage of conflict.
In much the same manner Mars takes on in addition to his agricultural character the functions of war-god, which in time completely superseded the earlier idea.
Here we have a series of celebrations representing the occupations of the successive seasons, addressed sometimes to numina who developed later on into the great gods of the state, such as Jupiter, Mars or Ceres, sometimes to vaguer divinities who remained always indefinite and rustic in character, such as Pales and Consus.
During this period the Salii took part in certain other festivities: the Equirria (Ecurria) on the i 4th, a chariot race in honour of Mars on the Campus Martius (in later times called Mamuralia, in honour of Mamurius), at which a skin was beaten with staves in imitation of hammering; the Quinquatrus on the 19th, a one-day festival, at which the shields were cleansed; the Tubilustrium on the 23rd, when the trumpets of the priests were purified.
The planets in question appeared in the telescope as star-like objects which could be compared with the stars with much greater accuracy than a planetary disk like that of Mars, the apparent form of which was changed by its varying phase, due to the different directions of the sun's illumination.
This is true not only of the major planets Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; it is also true of the host of more than five hundred minor planets.
- From the measures of the parallax of either Venus or Mars the parallax of the sun can 1 R.Š.
A still more marked action was the building of a great temple at the end of his own new forum to Mars Ultor, - Mars, the ancestor of the Julian gens, as of the Roman people itself, and now to be worshipped as the avenger of Caesar's murderers.
To determine the solar parallax by observations of Mars in 1877.
The Frankish assemblies, previously held in the month of March (champs de mars), but under Pippin deferred to May (champs de mai), came to be more numerous, and served the king of the Franks as a means of receiving the gifts of his subjects and of promulgating his capitularies.
Two colossal statues of Neptune and Mars at the top of these stairs were executed by Jacopo Sansovino in 1554 - hence the name "giants' staircase."
In controversy he was too fond of mingling personal abuse with legitimate argument, and this weakness mars his letters, which were held in high admiration in the early middle ages, and are valuable for their history of the man and his times.
On the Prussian side, von Alvensleben's Corps (III.) shortly after daybreak was moving north-westward from the Moselle in two columns, on the right the 5th division, via Gorze and Flavigny on Vionville, on the left the 6th division with corps artillery by Arnaville on Mars-la-Tour, von Alvensleben himself riding a little in advance between the two.
ARTHUR WILLIAM ACLAND HOOD, HOOD OF AVALON BARON (1824-1901), English admiral, born on the 14th of July 1824, was the younger son of Sir Alexander Hood of St Andries, Somerset, 2nd baronet, and grandson of Captain Alexander Hood, R.N., who, when in command of the "Mars," fell in action with the French 74-gun ship "Hercule," 21st of April 1798.
Mars, again, as third from the Moon, will preside over Tuesday (Dies Martis, Mardi), and so forth.
After the affair of the Champ de Mars (July 17th, 1791) a warrant was issued for his arrest, and he went into hiding.
Even in the Leiden papyrus the astronomical symbols for the sun and moon are used to denote gold and silver, and in the Meteorologica of Olympiodorus lead is attributed to Saturn, iron to Mars, copper to Venus, tin to Hermes (Mercury) and electrum to Jupiter.
Had the internal contacts alone been used, which many astronomers would have considered the proper course, the result would have been 8.776" In 1877 Sir David Gill organized an expedition to the island of Ascension to observe the parallax of Mars with the heliometer.
Finally, we must notice, as the sign of the synoecismus of the two settlements, the inclusion of the Colline deity, Quirinus, apparently the Mars of the originally rival community.
In these three deities, Jupiter, Mars, Quirinus, we have the great triad of the earliest stage of the state religion.
They were the work of a smith named Mamurius Veturius, probably identical with the god Mamers (Mars) himself.
Above the mountain of Mercury, and between the lines of head and heart is (6) the mountain of Mars, and above the line of the heart is (7) the mountain of the Moon.
He has not the excessive classicism of style which mars even the fine prose of Jean Calvin, and which makes that of some of Calvin's followers intolerably stiff.
The worship of Ares being less general throughout Greece than that of the gods of peace, the number of statues of him is small; those of Ares-Mars, among the Romans, are more frequent.
(1773), p. 190) also gives results of measurements by Gascoigne of the diameters of the moon, Jupiter, Mars and Venus with his micrometer.
3 If the day is divided into twenty-four hours and the planets preside in turn over each hour of the week in the order of their periodic times (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon), we get the order of days of the week with which we are familiar.
He was variously reported to have been wounded and killed in this affair, and the wits of the reactionary party circulated his epitaph: Ci-git le general Santerre Qui n'eut de Mars que la biere.
Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
Although at times he states his principles with a wonderful degree of breadth and insight, he mars the effect by looseness of statement, and by the incorporation of irrelevant psychological matter.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
QUIRINUS, the Sabine name of the god Mars, probably an adjective meaning "wielder of the spear" (Quiris, cf.
In the religious system of Numa, Quirinus and Mars were both recognized as divine beings, distinct but of similar attributes and functions; thus, like Mars, Quirinus was at once a god of war and a nature god, the protector of fields and flocks.
Hem heer anoon: Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe, Mars yren, Mercurie quik-silver we clepe, Saturnus leed and Jupiter is tin, And Venus coper, by my fader kin!
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
Transits of Venus and observations of Deterrnina- various kinds on Mars are all to be included in this tion.
By measurements giving the position of Mars among Planetary the neighbouring stars in the morning and evening, Parallaxes.
The distances of these bodies at the times of opposition were somewhat less than unity, though more than twice as great as that of Mars in 1877.
This inspection (recognitio) must not be confounded with the full-dress procession (transvectio) on the 15th of July from the temple of Mars or Honos to the Capitol, instituted in 304 B.C. by the censor Q.
In the astral-theological system he is the planet Mars, while in ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to be a symbol of Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi are probably intended to typify Ninib.
The only other conspiracy against him which amounted to more than intrigue was that of Cinq Mars in 1642, at the close of his life.
The Battle of Vionville - Mars-la-Tour (August z6).
They were originally twelve in number, called Salii Palatini to distinguish them from a second college of twelve, Salii Agonales or Collini, said to have been added by Tullus Hostilius; the Palatini were consecrated to Mars, the Collini to Quirinus.
The greater part of March (the birth-month of Mars), beginning from the 1st, on which day the ancile was said to have fallen from heaven and the campaigning season began, was devoted to various ceremonies connected with the Salii.
It was especially used to represent geometrically the periodic apparent retrograde motion of the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, which we now know to be due to the annual revolution of the earth around the sun, but which in the Ptolemaic astronomy were taken to be real.
If the consolidation took place with comparative uniformity we might then anticipate the formation of a vast multitude of small planets such as those we actually do find in the region between the orbit of Mars and that of Jupiter.
Its clock tower, surmounted by a statue of Mars, dates from the previous century.
This first became noticeable in connexion with the affair of the Champ de Mars on the 17th of July 1791.
These are Mars and the moon.
Newcomb found an excess of motions in the perihelion of Mars amounting to about 5" per century.
The same idea had, however, occurred to Ladmirault, and he had called on the two nearest French cavalry divisions to put it into execution, and as the Prussians began to reach the plateau west of Mars-la-Tour and the Yron brook from the south, the French were deploying across it some two thousand yards to the north.
SALII, the "dancers," an old Italian priesthood, said to have been instituted by Numa for the service of Mars, although later tradition derived them from Greece.
The Mars gallicus did not do much to help Jansen's friends in France, but it more than appeased the wrath of Madrid with Jansen himself; in 1636 he was appointed bishop of Ypres.
Cinq-Mars believed himself secure of the king's favour.
He was embittered by persecution, and continued his vehement attacks against all in power, and at last, after the day of the Champs du Mars (July 17,1790), against the king himself.
But before this grouping had recommended itself to the Romans, with their legend of Mars and Rhea Silvia, the Greek Ares had again become under Macedonian influence a bearded, armed and powerful god.
MARS); Preller, Griechische Mythologie.
The original road was no doubt only gravelled (glarea strata); in 298 B.C. a footpath was laid saxo quadrato from the Porta Capena, by which it left Rome, to the temple of Mars, about 1 m.
Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars (Geneva, 1900; there is an English translation published in London); Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, passim.
On the return of the Bourbons the painter was exiled with the other remaining regicides, and retired to Brussels, where he again returned to classical subjects: "Amor quitting Psyche," "Mars disarmed by Venus," &c. He rejected the offer, made through Baron Humboldt, of the office of minister of fine arts at Berlin, and remained at Brussels till his death on the 29th of December 1825.
Henri d'Effiat, marquis de Cinq-Mars, was the last of these favourites.
A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.