The hierarchy of dukes and marquises and counts consisted of foreign soldiers imposed on.
The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
Later it submitted to the marquises of Monferrato, and in the middle of the 14th century passed to the house of Savoy.
It again began to flourish under the marquises of Tuscany, who governed it in the name of the emperor.
Thus, while the commune of Pisa was still under the rule of the marquises of Tuscany, all negotiations with it were carried on as with an independent state officially represented by the archbishop and consuls.
The seigneurs of Bethune, avoues (advocati) of the great abbey of Saint-Vaast at Arras from the I 1 th century, were the ancestors of a great French house whence sprang the dukes of Sully, Charost, Orval, and Ancenis; the marquises of Rosny, Courville and Chabris; the counts of Selles and the princes of Boisbelle and Henrichemont.
The old castle of the marquises of Saluzzo now serves as a prison.
Besides the Gothic cathedral (1480-1511), with the tombs of the marquises, the churches of San Giovanni (formerly San Domenico), San Bernardo and the Casa Cavazza, now the municipal museum, are noteworthy.
The line of the marquises of Saluzzo began (1142) with Manfred, son of Boniface, marquis of Savona, and continued till 1548, when the city and territory were seized by the French.
The marquises being opponents of the house of Savoy, and taking part in the struggles between France and the empire, the city often suffered severely from the fortunes of war.
To this family belonged the lines of the counts of Joigny, the marquises of Royan and counts of Olonne, and the marquises and dukes of Noirmoutier.
The lords of the different territories belonged to five orders of nobility, corresponding closely to the dukes, marquises, earls, counts and barons of feudal Europe.
Lu had a great name among the other states of Chow, its marquises being descended from the duke of Chow, the legislator and consolidator of the dynasty which had been founded by his father and brother, the famous kings Wan and Wu.
Respectively to the S.S.E., were the scene of much fighting between the Aragonese government and the giudici and marquises of Arborea in the 14th and 15th centuries.
It fell under the power of its marquises in 1292, and became the chief town of a small state.
One of the earliest of the Frankish marquises was Boniface, either first or second of that name, who about 828 fought with success against the Saracens in Africa.
The male line of marquises ended with Boniface II.
Les Marquises), an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean lying between 7° 50 and 10° 35' S.
See Vincendon-Dumoulin lies Marquises (Paris, 1843); E.
Jardin, Essai sur l'histoire naturelle de l'archipel de Mendana (Paris, 1860); Clavel, Les Marquisiens (Paris, 1885); Dordillon, Grammaire et dictionnaire de la langue des Res Marquises (Paris, 1904).