He at first supported Marius and the popular party, but soon went over to the other side.
In 90 B.C. it acquired Roman citizenship, but in 82 B.C. having been held by the partisans of Marius, it was plundered by those of Sulla (who probably made the Rubicon the frontier of Italy instead of the Aesis), and a military colony settled there.
See Jugurtha; also Sallust, Jugurtha, 80-120; Plutarch, Marius, 8-32, Sulla, 3; A.
181 letters of Theodoret have come down to us, partly in a separate collection, partly in the Acta of the councils, and partly in the Latin of Marius Mercator; they are of great value not only for the biography of the writer, but also for the history of his diocese and of the church in general.
Pater, Marius the Epicurean (London, 1888); Matthew Arnold's Essays; C. H.
From 104 to for he served again under Marius in the war with the Cimbri and Teutones and fought in the last great battle in the Raudian plains near Verona.
The services of both Marius and Sulla were given; but Sulla was the more successful, or, at any rate, the more fortunate.
The senate had already chosen Sulla; but the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus moved that Marius should have the command.
Sulpicius was put to death, and Marius fled; and he and his party were crushed for the time.
Marius had died in 86, and the revolutionary party, specially represented by L.
Papirius Carbo and the younger Marius, had massacred Sulla's supporters wholesale, confiscated his property, and declared him a public enemy.
Caecilius Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, joined Sulla, and in the following year (82) he won a decisive victory over the younger Marius near Praeneste (mod.
Palestrina) and then marched upon Rome, where again, just before his defeat of Marius, there had been a great massacre of his adherents, in which the learned jurist Q.
With the death of the younger Marius, who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the civil war was at an end, and Sulla was master of Rome and of the Roman world.
Gerlach, Marius and Sulla (1856); J.
Remains of villas can also be traced, and to the largest of these, which occupied the summit of the promontory, and belonged first to Marius, then to Lucullus, and then to the imperial house, probably belongs the subterranean Grotta Dragonara.
But, as the exclusive privileges of the nobility were never recognized by any legal or formal act, men like Gaius Marius would ever and anon thrust themselves in.
This statue, by Marius Jean Antonin Mercie (b.
The chief honour being ascribed to Marius, Catulus became his bitter opponent.
He sided with Sulla in the civil war, was included in the proscription list of 87, and when Marius declined to pardon him, committed suicide.
See Plutarch, Marius, Sulla; Appian, B.
He inherited his father's hatred of Marius, and was a consistent though moderate supporter of the aristocracy.
14, probably based on Marius Maximus; Eutropius viii.
The autobiography was used by both Dio Cassius and Marius Maximus.
He entered into an agreement with C. Marius, and in order to gain the favour of his soldiers proposed that each of his veterans should receive an allotment of Ioo jugera of land in Africa.
He was also chiefly instrumental in securing the election of Marius to his fourth consulship (102).
Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally C. Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and the needy rabble.
By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (ioo consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time.
Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope 1 According to some, the son of the Caepio mentioned above.
The senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State.
Marius had no alternative but to obey.
GAIUS MARIUS (155-86 B.C.), Roman general, of plebeian descent, the son of a small farmer of Cereatae (mod.
Casamare, " home of Marius") near Arpinum.
The surrender of the person of Jugurtha to Sulla gave rise to the view that he, not Marius, had really ended the war, and so laid the foundation of the subsequent enmity between the two leaders.
By this time Marius was generally recognized as the ablest general of the day, and was appointed to the chief command against the Cimbri and Teutones.
In 101 Marius was elected consul a fifth time (previously in 107, 104, 103, 102), hailed as the "saviour of his country," and honoured with a triumph of unprecedented splendour.
With the assistance of the tribune Sulpicius Rufus, Marius succeeded in getting the command transferred to himself.
Sulla marched upon Rome and defeated Marius, who fled to the marshes of Minturnae in Latium.
The inhabitants out of compassion then allowed Marius to depart, and put him on board a ship which conveyed him to Carthage.
When forbidden to land, he told the messenger to inform the governor that he had seen Marius sitting as a fugitive among the ruins of Carthage.
Meantime, Sulla having left Italy for the Mithradatic war, Cinna's sudden and violent revolution put the senate at the mercy of the popular leaders, and Marius greedily caught at the opportunity of a bloody vengeance, which became in fact a reign of terror in which senators and nobles were slaughtered wholesale.
Marius was not only a great general, but also a great military reformer.